Presentation on theme: "Basic Safety Orientation Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic Safety Orientation Training Hazard CommunicationRespiratorsPersonal Protective EquipmentHearing ConservationFall ProtectionLockout TagoutConfined SpaceFire / Fire ExtinguishersBasic First Aid (not certified training)Blood Borne PathogensHeat/Cold StressGood Safety PracticesAuthored and Developed by:Ronald D. Roy, CIH, CSP
2 Hazard Communication “The Right To Know” Chemical Hazards Written ProgramTrainingContainer LabelsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Inventory List
3 Chemical Hazards Flammable/Explosion Toxic/Poison Reactive Corrosive Flash pointLELToxic/PoisonAcute / ChronicLocal / SystemicRoutes of entryReactiveCorrosive
6 Material Safety Data Sheets Identity of Material and ManufacturerHazardous IngredientsPhysical and Chemical CharacteristicsFire and Explosion Hazard DataReactivity DataHealth Hazard Data (Limits, Symptoms, etc.)Precautions for Safe HandlingControl Measures and First Aid
7 Respiratory Hazards Toxic Oxygen deficiency or enrichment Dusts, fumes, and mists (particulate)Gases and vaporsOxygen deficiency or enrichmentImmediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
8 Respiratory (Occupational) Exposure Limits Permissible Exposure Limit - OSHA PELThreshold Limit Value - ACGIH TLVTime-Weighted-Average - TWAShort Term Exposure Limit - STELCeiling Limit - TLV-C or PEL-C“Skin” notationProtection for a Working Lifetime
10 Respirator Protection Factors (PF) Air-Purifying (APR)1Dust Mask - 10Half Face - 10Full Face - 50Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) - 1001-Negative pressure in facepieceSupplied Air (SAR)2Air-lineHood style - 100Facepiece styleEscape provisions - >10,000Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) - >10,0002-Positive Pressure in facepiece
11 Limitations Air-Purifying (APR) Supplied Air (SAR) Concentration of contaminant (PF)Oxygen level (19.5%-23.5%)Cartridge useful lifeWarning properties (some substances can’t be detected or are too toxic)Supplied Air (SAR)Concentration of contaminant (PF)Must provide “Grade D” air sourceMore cumbersome / unwieldyMobility (air line style)Length of work time (SCBA style)
12 Respirator Program Elements Written ProceduresSelection of RespiratorsTraining of UsersFit-TestingInitialAnnualChanging brandCleaning and StorageMaintenanceInspectionWork Area SurveillanceMedical FitnessProgram AuditingUsing Certified RespiratorsNO BEARDSNo Glasses with Full Face
13 Personal Protective Equipment Required when engineering or administrative controls are inadequate.Must be properly selected and worn.Training is required.Pre-Job analysisHazard Assessment
14 Head Protection Hard Hats (Safety Helmets) Bump Caps Class A - Limited voltage protectionClass B - High voltage protectionClass C - No voltage protectionClass D - Firefighter’s helmetBump CapsNot recommended
15 Eye and Face Protection Safety Glasses (minimum requirement)Goggles - better protection for chemicals, splashes, dusts, or projectiles.Face Shield - better for splashes or projectilesChemical Splash Hoodshoulder length or longer
16 Hand and Foot Protection Gloves / sleevesGeneral dutyCotton, leatherSharp objectsLeather, kevlarCutsKevlarChemicalMultiple typesShoes / BootsSteel toeCompression, punctureMetatarsal guardsProtects top of foot behind toeChemical resistantPrevents contact with chemicals
19 Levels of Protection Level A Level B Level C Level D full encapsulating suitSCBA or SARGloves, boots, hat, etc. as neededLevel BChemical Suit (CPC)Level CChemical Suit (CPC)Air purifying respiratorGloves, boots, hat, etc. as neededLevel DWork uniformHard hatSafety glassesGloves, etc. as needed
20 Hearing Conservation Hearing Loss Other Effects of Noise Disease Age Excessive NoiseworkplaceenvironmentalrecreationalOther Effects of NoiseElevated blood pressure, stress, sleeplessness
22 Noise Exposure Continuous Intermittent Impact constant level over time levels vary over an area or start and stopImpactsharp burst of sound (nail gun, hammer)
23 Hearing Protectors Ear Plugs - preferred (NRR* 20-30 dB) Ear Muffs - 2nd choice (NRR dB)Double Hearing Protectors (plugs and muffs) (NRR dB) used for levels over 115 dB(*NRR = Noise Reduction Rating - an approximate decibel reduction provided by the protector in lab conditions. Subtract 7 dB for approximate “real world” attenuation)
24 Audiometric Testing Initial Testing - Baseline for reference Annual Testing - periodic monitoringPerformed when exposure exceeds OSHA limitAssures protection is adequateEvaluation is age-adjusted
25 Fall Protection Any open edge higher than six (6) feet Guardrail SystemSafety Net SystemPersonal Fall Arrest SystemAny fixed ladder higher than 20 feetLadder Safety Device (with body harness)Safety Cage with offset landings every 30 feet
26 Personal Fall Arrest System Full Body HarnessLanyard (regular or retractable)Shock AbsorberLocking Snap Hooks (no single action)Lifeline (as needed)AnchorageMust hold 5000 lbs.
28 Scaffolding Erected by “Competent Person” Sound, rigid footing No overloadingScaffold Grade PlankingRailings / toeboardsTie-Off if no railingAccess laddersGet down from “rolling” scaffold to move itNo portable ladders on scaffolding
29 Portable Ladders Use only approved ladders Inspect before use Use both handsOne person onlyFirm, level footingDo not use as platform or scaffoldUse fall arrest if > 6 ft. working from ladderSecure top of extension laddersExtend 3 feet above access or working levelUse 4:1 lean ratio
30 Aerial Lifts Secure lanyard to anchor point Never use a ladder from a liftDon’t over extend boom liftsFollow manufacturer’s safety notices
31 Lockout/Tagout Control of Hazardous Energy ElectricalMechanicalThermalPressureChemicalKinetic / GravityPrevention of injuries caused by release of Hazardous Energy
32 Lockout Lock device applied to energy control point A positive means to secure isolation pointIndividual reponsible for own lock & keyPreferred method
33 Tagout Tag device applied to energy control point Used in conjunction with LockoutUsed when Lockout not feasibleName, date, time, purpose, etc.
34 Performing Lockout/Tagout PreparationIdentify the energy source(s)Determine how to control the energyDissipate residual energyBlock components subject to movementShutdown EquipmentFollow normal stopping proceduresAllow motion to stop
35 Applying Lockout/Tagout Close or shut off all energy sourcesApply locks and/or tagsVerify isolation - “Try”Try the switchTry the start buttonContractors may need assistance or procedures to identify all energy sources
36 Removing Lockout/Tagout Remove tools and equipmentReplace guards and coversCheck for all clearRemove your locks and tagsOther locks & tags may remainNotify responsible party of completion
37 LO/TO Procedures & Auditing Written Procedures are required for each type of machinery or equipmentAvailable to authorized employeesAuthorized employees must be familiarAnnual Inspection and CertificationObserve each authorized employeeDocument observationsAuthorized employees should expect and cooperate with audit
38 Confined (Permit) Space Entry OSHA DefinitionLimited means of entry or exitNot intended for human occupancyMay / could contain a hazardous atmosphereContains engulfment or entrapment hazardsContains other hazardsTanks, vessels, storage hoppers, pipelines, manholes, tankers, bins, excavations, etc.
39 Atmospheric HazardsOxygen Deficiency / Enrichment - below 19.5% or above 23.5%Flammable / Explosive - LEL above 5%Toxic - above PEL, unknown, or IDLHControl with testing, ventilation, and/or PPE
40 Other Hazards Hazardous Energy - Lockout / Tagout Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical, Pressure, ChemicalEntrapment - plan for avoidance and retrievalEngulfment - plan for avoidance and retrievalRescue - plan for retrieval, must have Attendant and communications
41 Confined Space Permits Facility issuedContractor issuedSupervisor preparesSign In / OutAtmospheric testingHazard controlsRenew when expired
42 Entrants, Attendants and Supervisors Enter the spacePerform the workExit on Attendant’s ordersSupervisorPerform air monitoringControl other hazardsComplete permitAttendantsBe present continuouslyMaintain headcountMaintain contact with entrantsOrders evacuation, activates rescuePrevent unauthorized entry
43 Confined SpaceVentilation Positive - blowing air into the space, exhaust is through openingsNegative - pulling air out of the space, exhaust is through blowerExplosion-proof equipment if neededPurging / Inerting - inert gas (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon) used to replace oxygen atmosphere in space for HOT work
44 Special Equipment - Confined Space Entry Full Body Harness – often requiredLifeline (Retrieval Line)Mechanical Retrieval System - required for vertical entries exceeding five (5) feetFall Protection AnchorageTesting metersOxygenCombustible gasToxic chemicals
45 Elements of Fire Elements of Combustion (Fire Triangle) All required for a fire to occur.Trend is to include “Chemical Reaction” as fourth element (Fire Tetrahedron).Tetrahedron is a 3-D triangle – a triangle base pyramid.
46 Fire Properties & Chemistry Solids do not burn. Gases burn.Fuel must release gases/vapors – may require heating. (Ray Bradbury – Fahrenheit 451)Fuel gases must mix /w Oxygen in proper proportion (Lean / Rich Flammable Range).Must be a source of ignition.1 - Fire occurs in the vapor/gaseous state.2 - Fahrenheit 451 refers to the FLASH POINT TEMPERATURE of paper. - When it is hot enough to release enough fuel gases for a fire to start. (Book/movie about censorship – book burning.)3 - Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) – when there is an appropriate fuel/air mixture for combustion I.e. not too lean (too little fuel), not too rich (too much fuel)4 - Ignition sources – Static electrical spark, match, pilot light, welding (any spark producing activity), etc.
47 Fire Terms Flash Point Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL) Ignition TemperatureFlammable vs. Combustible liquidsBonding and Grounding1 - Flash Point – minimum temperature a fuel must be heated before it will ignite2 - Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) – when there is an appropriate fuel/air mixture for combustion I.e. not too lean (too little fuel), not too rich (too much fuel)3 - LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL) – Lower Explosive (Flammability) Limit / Upper Explosive (Flammability) Limit. These are the upper and lower limits of the Flammable Range.4 - Ignition Temperature – How hot the ignition source has to be – usually higher than the flash point.5 - Flammable vs. Combustible liquids – Flammable liquids have flash points less than 100F for OSHA rules, 140F for DOT rules, and 140F for EPA Hazardous Waste rules (EPA uses the term “ignitable” instead of “flammable”). Combustible liquids have flash points higher than those. Flammable liquids are at or above flash point at normal/ambient temperatures.6 - Bonding and Grounding – refers to procedures to dissipate static electricity during handling or transfer of flammable/combustible liquids. Bonding means to electrically bond 2 containers. Grounding means to electrically connecting them to ground.
48 Classes of FiresClass A – most common fire. A burning house is a class A fire.Class B – at home would occur with household chemicals (paint, strippers, solvent cleaners, etc.) or fuels (gasoline, oils, etc.) or in the kitchen with grease.
49 Classes of FiresClass C – danger from live electricity. GET POWER TURNED OFF.Class D – many metals will burn magnesium, aluminum, metallic sodium, are examples. Metal burns easier if it is in powder form or chips. Putting water on a metal fire is very dangerous – it may explode.
50 Fire Extinguishant Materials Water - class A only - cools /removes heatDry Chemical - class A, B, or C - interferes with chemical reactionCarbon Dioxide - class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fireHalon – (being phased out - ozone) class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fireMetl-X - class D only - specialized dry chemical for metal firesFoam – Class B, holds down vaporsHalon – Is a chloro-fluorocarbon (CFC), concerns about ozone layer depletion.Foam – Usually used by professional fire fighters.
51 Fire Extinguisher Features Operating leverLocking pinPressure gaugeDischarge nozzleLabeltype of extinguisher (A,B,C,D)instructions
52 Fire Extinguisher Use Select correct extinguisher for class of fire Pull the locking pinAim at base of fireSqueeze and hold the discharge leverSweep from side to sideCAUTION - monitor the area, the fire could re-igniteAlways notify supervisor of extinguisher use so it can be replaced or recharged and the fire investigated
53 Basic First Aid Shock Bleeding Burns Lay victim down Keep victim warm Keep victim calmGet assistanceBleedingUse clean bandageApply pressureElevate woundBurns1st Degree - redness only, flush with cool water2nd Degree - blisters, place damp bandage, use no ointments3rd Degree - white or charred, use dry bandage2nd or 3rd - get medical attention
54 Basic First Aid, cont. Fractures Head and Neck Injuries Chemical Burns Closed fractures - (no protruding bones), immobilizeOpen fractures - immobilize, control bleedingHead and Neck InjuriesDO NOT MOVE VICTIMChemical BurnsFlush with water for 15 minutes minimumBites and StingsBe aware of bee sting allergiesPoisonous bites - seek medical attention
55 Bloodborne Pathogens Aids Hepatitis Hep-B vaccines for designated personsNo contact with blood or body fluidsWear protective equipment, especially gloves & safety glassesHospital / Laboratory Waste - “Red Bag”Sharps disposal
56 Temperature Stress - Cold Dress in layersLimit exposed skinFrostbite - localized frozen tissueDo not rub area, limit motion, warm slowlyHypothermia - lowered body temperatureRemove wet clothing, use dry blanketsSeek medical attention
57 Temperature Stress - Heat Sunburn - keep skin coveredHeat Cramps - drink dilute “Gatorade”Heat Exhaustion - heavy sweating, cool skinCool victim, seek medical attention if vomitingHeat Stroke - medical emergencyHot, dry skin, rapid then weakening pulseCool victim immediately
58 Good Safety Practices Inspect work area daily Be an observer - stay alertHousekeeping, Housekeeping, HousekeepingUse your best safety device - THINKIf you’re not sure - ASK someone!!Report Injuries/Incidents/IllnessesReport safety issues to the safety committee