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Basic Safety Orientation Training

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Safety Orientation Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Safety Orientation Training
Hazard Communication Respirators Personal Protective Equipment Hearing Conservation Fall Protection Lockout Tagout Confined Space Fire / Fire Extinguishers Basic First Aid (not certified training) Blood Borne Pathogens Heat/Cold Stress Good Safety Practices Authored and Developed by: Ronald D. Roy, CIH, CSP

2 Hazard Communication “The Right To Know” Chemical Hazards
Written Program Training Container Labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Inventory List

3 Chemical Hazards Flammable/Explosion Toxic/Poison Reactive Corrosive
Flash point LEL Toxic/Poison Acute / Chronic Local / Systemic Routes of entry Reactive Corrosive

4 Container Labels Shipping Labels Manufacturer’s Warnings
NFPA Diamond / HMIS Labels Health, Fire, and Reactive Hazards

5 NFPA Diamond

6 Material Safety Data Sheets
Identity of Material and Manufacturer Hazardous Ingredients Physical and Chemical Characteristics Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Reactivity Data Health Hazard Data (Limits, Symptoms, etc.) Precautions for Safe Handling Control Measures and First Aid

7 Respiratory Hazards Toxic Oxygen deficiency or enrichment
Dusts, fumes, and mists (particulate) Gases and vapors Oxygen deficiency or enrichment Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)

8 Respiratory (Occupational) Exposure Limits
Permissible Exposure Limit - OSHA PEL Threshold Limit Value - ACGIH TLV Time-Weighted-Average - TWA Short Term Exposure Limit - STEL Ceiling Limit - TLV-C or PEL-C “Skin” notation Protection for a Working Lifetime

9 Respiratory Protection
Air-Purifying (APR) Dust Mask Half Face Full Face Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) Supplied Air (SAR) Air-line Hood style Facepiece style Half Face Full Face Escape provisions Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

10 Respirator Protection Factors (PF)
Air-Purifying (APR)1 Dust Mask - 10 Half Face - 10 Full Face - 50 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) - 100 1-Negative pressure in facepiece Supplied Air (SAR)2 Air-line Hood style - 100 Facepiece style Escape provisions - >10,000 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) - >10,000 2-Positive Pressure in facepiece

11 Limitations Air-Purifying (APR) Supplied Air (SAR)
Concentration of contaminant (PF) Oxygen level (19.5%-23.5%) Cartridge useful life Warning properties (some substances can’t be detected or are too toxic) Supplied Air (SAR) Concentration of contaminant (PF) Must provide “Grade D” air source More cumbersome / unwieldy Mobility (air line style) Length of work time (SCBA style)

12 Respirator Program Elements
Written Procedures Selection of Respirators Training of Users Fit-Testing Initial Annual Changing brand Cleaning and Storage Maintenance Inspection Work Area Surveillance Medical Fitness Program Auditing Using Certified Respirators NO BEARDS No Glasses with Full Face

13 Personal Protective Equipment
Required when engineering or administrative controls are inadequate. Must be properly selected and worn. Training is required. Pre-Job analysis Hazard Assessment

14 Head Protection Hard Hats (Safety Helmets) Bump Caps
Class A - Limited voltage protection Class B - High voltage protection Class C - No voltage protection Class D - Firefighter’s helmet Bump Caps Not recommended

15 Eye and Face Protection
Safety Glasses (minimum requirement) Goggles - better protection for chemicals, splashes, dusts, or projectiles. Face Shield - better for splashes or projectiles Chemical Splash Hood shoulder length or longer

16 Hand and Foot Protection
Gloves / sleeves General duty Cotton, leather Sharp objects Leather, kevlar Cuts Kevlar Chemical Multiple types Shoes / Boots Steel toe Compression, puncture Metatarsal guards Protects top of foot behind toe Chemical resistant Prevents contact with chemicals

17 Chemical Protective Clothing
Qualities Puncture resistance Wear resistance Tactility Degradation Permeation Types Full Encapsulating suit Splash suit Coveralls Hoods Gloves Boots Boot / Shoe covers

18 Protective Clothing Materials
Tyvek (white suits) dusts, dirt, grease Saranex coated tyvek, better for mild chemicals Polyethylene alternative to tyvek PVC rain suits, splash suits moderate chemicals Neoprene acids, caustics, solvents Butyl rubber resists gases Nomex flame protection Kevlar cut protection MANY OTHERS

19 Levels of Protection Level A Level B Level C Level D
full encapsulating suit SCBA or SAR Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed Level B Chemical Suit (CPC) Level C Chemical Suit (CPC) Air purifying respirator Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed Level D Work uniform Hard hat Safety glasses Gloves, etc. as needed

20 Hearing Conservation Hearing Loss Other Effects of Noise Disease Age
Excessive Noise workplace environmental recreational Other Effects of Noise Elevated blood pressure, stress, sleeplessness

21 Noise Levels Measured in decibels (dB) OSHA Limit (PEL) - 85 dB
Whisper dB Speech- 60 dB Noisy Office- 80 dB Lawnmower- 95 dB Passing Truck- 100 dB Jet Engine- 150 dB OSHA Limit (PEL) - 85 dB

22 Noise Exposure Continuous Intermittent Impact constant level over time
levels vary over an area or start and stop Impact sharp burst of sound (nail gun, hammer)

23 Hearing Protectors Ear Plugs - preferred (NRR* 20-30 dB)
Ear Muffs - 2nd choice (NRR dB) Double Hearing Protectors (plugs and muffs) (NRR dB) used for levels over 115 dB (*NRR = Noise Reduction Rating - an approximate decibel reduction provided by the protector in lab conditions. Subtract 7 dB for approximate “real world” attenuation)

24 Audiometric Testing Initial Testing - Baseline for reference
Annual Testing - periodic monitoring Performed when exposure exceeds OSHA limit Assures protection is adequate Evaluation is age-adjusted

25 Fall Protection Any open edge higher than six (6) feet
Guardrail System Safety Net System Personal Fall Arrest System Any fixed ladder higher than 20 feet Ladder Safety Device (with body harness) Safety Cage with offset landings every 30 feet

26 Personal Fall Arrest System
Full Body Harness Lanyard (regular or retractable) Shock Absorber Locking Snap Hooks (no single action) Lifeline (as needed) Anchorage Must hold 5000 lbs.

27 Fall Clearance (not a sale!)

28 Scaffolding Erected by “Competent Person” Sound, rigid footing
No overloading Scaffold Grade Planking Railings / toeboards Tie-Off if no railing Access ladders Get down from “rolling” scaffold to move it No portable ladders on scaffolding

29 Portable Ladders Use only approved ladders Inspect before use
Use both hands One person only Firm, level footing Do not use as platform or scaffold Use fall arrest if > 6 ft. working from ladder Secure top of extension ladders Extend 3 feet above access or working level Use 4:1 lean ratio

30 Aerial Lifts Secure lanyard to anchor point
Never use a ladder from a lift Don’t over extend boom lifts Follow manufacturer’s safety notices

31 Lockout/Tagout Control of Hazardous Energy
Electrical Mechanical Thermal Pressure Chemical Kinetic / Gravity Prevention of injuries caused by release of Hazardous Energy

32 Lockout Lock device applied to energy control point
A positive means to secure isolation point Individual reponsible for own lock & key Preferred method

33 Tagout Tag device applied to energy control point
Used in conjunction with Lockout Used when Lockout not feasible Name, date, time, purpose, etc.

34 Performing Lockout/Tagout
Preparation Identify the energy source(s) Determine how to control the energy Dissipate residual energy Block components subject to movement Shutdown Equipment Follow normal stopping procedures Allow motion to stop

35 Applying Lockout/Tagout
Close or shut off all energy sources Apply locks and/or tags Verify isolation - “Try” Try the switch Try the start button Contractors may need assistance or procedures to identify all energy sources

36 Removing Lockout/Tagout
Remove tools and equipment Replace guards and covers Check for all clear Remove your locks and tags Other locks & tags may remain Notify responsible party of completion

37 LO/TO Procedures & Auditing
Written Procedures are required for each type of machinery or equipment Available to authorized employees Authorized employees must be familiar Annual Inspection and Certification Observe each authorized employee Document observations Authorized employees should expect and cooperate with audit

38 Confined (Permit) Space Entry
OSHA Definition Limited means of entry or exit Not intended for human occupancy May / could contain a hazardous atmosphere Contains engulfment or entrapment hazards Contains other hazards Tanks, vessels, storage hoppers, pipelines, manholes, tankers, bins, excavations, etc.

39 Atmospheric Hazards Oxygen Deficiency / Enrichment - below 19.5% or above 23.5% Flammable / Explosive - LEL above 5% Toxic - above PEL, unknown, or IDLH Control with testing, ventilation, and/or PPE

40 Other Hazards Hazardous Energy - Lockout / Tagout
Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical, Pressure, Chemical Entrapment - plan for avoidance and retrieval Engulfment - plan for avoidance and retrieval Rescue - plan for retrieval, must have Attendant and communications

41 Confined Space Permits
Facility issued Contractor issued Supervisor prepares Sign In / Out Atmospheric testing Hazard controls Renew when expired

42 Entrants, Attendants and Supervisors
Enter the space Perform the work Exit on Attendant’s orders Supervisor Perform air monitoring Control other hazards Complete permit Attendants Be present continuously Maintain headcount Maintain contact with entrants Orders evacuation, activates rescue Prevent unauthorized entry

43 Confined SpaceVentilation
Positive - blowing air into the space, exhaust is through openings Negative - pulling air out of the space, exhaust is through blower Explosion-proof equipment if needed Purging / Inerting - inert gas (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon) used to replace oxygen atmosphere in space for HOT work

44 Special Equipment - Confined Space Entry
Full Body Harness – often required Lifeline (Retrieval Line) Mechanical Retrieval System - required for vertical entries exceeding five (5) feet Fall Protection Anchorage Testing meters Oxygen Combustible gas Toxic chemicals

45 Elements of Fire Elements of Combustion (Fire Triangle)
All required for a fire to occur. Trend is to include “Chemical Reaction” as fourth element (Fire Tetrahedron). Tetrahedron is a 3-D triangle – a triangle base pyramid.

46 Fire Properties & Chemistry
Solids do not burn. Gases burn. Fuel must release gases/vapors – may require heating. (Ray Bradbury – Fahrenheit 451) Fuel gases must mix /w Oxygen in proper proportion (Lean / Rich Flammable Range). Must be a source of ignition. 1 - Fire occurs in the vapor/gaseous state. 2 - Fahrenheit 451 refers to the FLASH POINT TEMPERATURE of paper. - When it is hot enough to release enough fuel gases for a fire to start. (Book/movie about censorship – book burning.) 3 - Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) – when there is an appropriate fuel/air mixture for combustion I.e. not too lean (too little fuel), not too rich (too much fuel) 4 - Ignition sources – Static electrical spark, match, pilot light, welding (any spark producing activity), etc.

47 Fire Terms Flash Point Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL)
Ignition Temperature Flammable vs. Combustible liquids Bonding and Grounding 1 - Flash Point – minimum temperature a fuel must be heated before it will ignite 2 - Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) – when there is an appropriate fuel/air mixture for combustion I.e. not too lean (too little fuel), not too rich (too much fuel) 3 - LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL) – Lower Explosive (Flammability) Limit / Upper Explosive (Flammability) Limit. These are the upper and lower limits of the Flammable Range. 4 - Ignition Temperature – How hot the ignition source has to be – usually higher than the flash point. 5 - Flammable vs. Combustible liquids – Flammable liquids have flash points less than 100F for OSHA rules, 140F for DOT rules, and 140F for EPA Hazardous Waste rules (EPA uses the term “ignitable” instead of “flammable”). Combustible liquids have flash points higher than those. Flammable liquids are at or above flash point at normal/ambient temperatures. 6 - Bonding and Grounding – refers to procedures to dissipate static electricity during handling or transfer of flammable/combustible liquids. Bonding means to electrically bond 2 containers. Grounding means to electrically connecting them to ground.

48 Classes of Fires Class A – most common fire. A burning house is a class A fire. Class B – at home would occur with household chemicals (paint, strippers, solvent cleaners, etc.) or fuels (gasoline, oils, etc.) or in the kitchen with grease.

49 Classes of Fires Class C – danger from live electricity. GET POWER TURNED OFF. Class D – many metals will burn magnesium, aluminum, metallic sodium, are examples. Metal burns easier if it is in powder form or chips. Putting water on a metal fire is very dangerous – it may explode.

50 Fire Extinguishant Materials
Water - class A only - cools /removes heat Dry Chemical - class A, B, or C - interferes with chemical reaction Carbon Dioxide - class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fire Halon – (being phased out - ozone) class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fire Metl-X - class D only - specialized dry chemical for metal fires Foam – Class B, holds down vapors Halon – Is a chloro-fluorocarbon (CFC), concerns about ozone layer depletion. Foam – Usually used by professional fire fighters.

51 Fire Extinguisher Features
Operating lever Locking pin Pressure gauge Discharge nozzle Label type of extinguisher (A,B,C,D) instructions

52 Fire Extinguisher Use Select correct extinguisher for class of fire
Pull the locking pin Aim at base of fire Squeeze and hold the discharge lever Sweep from side to side CAUTION - monitor the area, the fire could re-ignite Always notify supervisor of extinguisher use so it can be replaced or recharged and the fire investigated

53 Basic First Aid Shock Bleeding Burns Lay victim down Keep victim warm
Keep victim calm Get assistance Bleeding Use clean bandage Apply pressure Elevate wound Burns 1st Degree - redness only, flush with cool water 2nd Degree - blisters, place damp bandage, use no ointments 3rd Degree - white or charred, use dry bandage 2nd or 3rd - get medical attention

54 Basic First Aid, cont. Fractures Head and Neck Injuries Chemical Burns
Closed fractures - (no protruding bones), immobilize Open fractures - immobilize, control bleeding Head and Neck Injuries DO NOT MOVE VICTIM Chemical Burns Flush with water for 15 minutes minimum Bites and Stings Be aware of bee sting allergies Poisonous bites - seek medical attention

55 Bloodborne Pathogens Aids Hepatitis
Hep-B vaccines for designated persons No contact with blood or body fluids Wear protective equipment, especially gloves & safety glasses Hospital / Laboratory Waste - “Red Bag” Sharps disposal

56 Temperature Stress - Cold
Dress in layers Limit exposed skin Frostbite - localized frozen tissue Do not rub area, limit motion, warm slowly Hypothermia - lowered body temperature Remove wet clothing, use dry blankets Seek medical attention

57 Temperature Stress - Heat
Sunburn - keep skin covered Heat Cramps - drink dilute “Gatorade” Heat Exhaustion - heavy sweating, cool skin Cool victim, seek medical attention if vomiting Heat Stroke - medical emergency Hot, dry skin, rapid then weakening pulse Cool victim immediately

58 Good Safety Practices Inspect work area daily
Be an observer - stay alert Housekeeping, Housekeeping, Housekeeping Use your best safety device - THINK If you’re not sure - ASK someone!! Report Injuries/Incidents/Illnesses Report safety issues to the safety committee

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