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The Homefront World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "The Homefront World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Homefront World War I

2 World War I Casualties

3 War Mobilization

4 Enlistment

5 The Most Famous Recruitment Poster

6 1917 – Selective Service Act
24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

7 Expansion of the Federal Government

8 Council of National Defense
War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William McAdoo National War Labor Board – W. H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh

9 U. S. Food Administration

10 U. S. Food Administration

11 National War Garden Commission

12 U. S. Shipping Board

13 U. S. Fuel Administration

14 U. S. Fuel Administration

15 Results of This New Organization of the Economy?
Unemployment virtually disappeared. Expansion of “big government.” Excessive govt. regulations in eco. Some gross mismanagement  overlapping jurisdictions. Close cooperation between public and private sectors. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

16 New Social/Economic Opportunities

17 Women

18 Munitions Work

19 The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!

20 Women Used In Recruitment
Hello, Big Boy!

21 Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds

22 The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World

23 The Red Cross Nurse

24 National League for Woman’s Service

25 African-Americans

26 Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1
“Great Migration.” – 1919  70,000 War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.

27 True Sons of Freedom

28 African-Americans on a Troop Ship Headed for France

29 New American Immigrants

30 The “Flag of Liberty” Represents All of Us!

31 We are ALL Americans!

32 United War Work Campaign

33 Wartime Propaganda

34 The “Menace of the Seas”

35 The 14 Points Wilson wanted “peace without victory”
He wanted a League of Nations to keep world peace The 14 Points – more democracy in the world Germany and Russia were not invited to the negotiations

36 The AEF in Action March 1918 – Last Gasp German Offensive. Americans stopped the advance at Chateau-Thierry Push the Germans back at Saint-Mihiel – mid-September

37 The Argonne Forest September 26, The most massive American attack in US History to this point 600,000 men massed to attack German lines. By November German lines are shattered!

38 An American Hero Sergent Alvin York – Tennessee (a conscientious objector) killed about 25 Germans and captured 132 prisoners. Wins the Medal of Honor and the French Croix de Guerre

39 Armistice declared at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th Month. A cease fire!! American deaths107,000

40 The 14 Points I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.

41 The 14 Points VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.

42 The 14 Points VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all. IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.

43 The 14 Points XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant. XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

44 The Treaty of Versailles
Britain, France, and Italy wanted to punish Germany Germany had to accept the blame for the war and pay heavy reparations

45 The Treaty of Versailles
The Senate refused to ratify the treaty Generally some Senators did not want to tied to a permanent treaty with Europe The killing point was the mutual defense clause U.S. will never ratify the Treaty of Versailles

46 Territorial Changes As a Result of World War I 46 46

47 WW 1 Secret Treaties: Sykes-Picot Agreement [1916]
47 47

48 Balfour Declaration [1917]
November 2nd, 1917 . “His Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate {assist} the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” 48 48

49 British Palestine Mandate in 1923
49 49

50 New Nations &Territories After WW I
50 50

51 Attacks on Civil Liberties

52 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans
1. Espionage Act – forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

53 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans
2. Sedition Act – it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

54 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans
3. Schenck v. US – in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the st Amendment BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.

55 “What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World
The “Red Scare” “What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World

56 “Red Scare” -- Anti-Bolshevism
“Put Them Out & Keep Them Out” – Philadelphia Inquirer

57 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans
“The Red Scare”: rd. International goal --> promote worldwide communism. Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case Against the Reds) Palmer Raids

58 “Red Scare” – Palmer Raids
A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home Bombed, 1920

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