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Common Conditions of the Upper Respiratory System

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Presentation on theme: "Common Conditions of the Upper Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology Chapter 31 Upper Respiratory System Drugs

2 Common Conditions of the Upper Respiratory System
Infections Allergic rhinitis Coughs Common cold Congestion

3 Medication Classes Intranasal steroids or antihistamines relieve allergy symptoms Promethazine and diphenhydramine are used to treat motion sickness also Decongestants reduce nasal edema Such as phenylephrine and oxymetazoline Antitussives, mucolytics, and expectorants treat accompanying cough 

4 Antihistamines: Actions
Antihistamines block most, but not all, of the effects of histamine First-generation antihistamines bind nonselectively to central and peripheral H1 receptors and may result in CNS stimulation or depression Other first-generation drugs may have additional effects: antipruritic (anti-itching) or antiemetic (antinausea) effects Second-generation antihistamines are selective for peripheral H1 receptors and, as a group, are less sedating

5 Antihistamines: Uses #1
Seasonal and perennial allergies Allergic and vasomotor rhinitis Allergic conjunctivitis Mild and uncomplicated angioneurotic edema and urticaria Allergic reactions to drugs, blood, or plasma Coughs caused by colds or allergy

6 Antihistamines: Uses #2
Adjunctive therapy in anaphylactic shock Treatment of parkinsonism Relief of nausea and vomiting Relief of motion sickness Sedation Adjuncts to analgesics

7 Antihistamines: Adverse Reactions
Central nervous system reactions Drowsiness or sedation; disturbed coordination Anticholinergic effects (cholinergic blocking) Dryness of mouth, nose, and throat; thickening of bronchial secretions

8 Antihistamines: Contraindications and Precautions #1
Contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation First-generation antihistamines: patients with known hypersensitivity to the drugs, newborns, premature infants, nursing mothers, individuals undergoing monoamine oxidase therapy, and in patients with angle- closure glaucoma, stenosing peptic ulcer, symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy, and bladder neck obstruction

9 Antihistamines: Contraindications and Precautions #2
Second-generation antihistamines: patients with known hypersensitivity Cetirizine is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to hydroxyzine Used with caution in patients with bronchial asthma, cardiovascular disease, narrow-angle glaucoma, symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy, hypertension, impaired kidney function, peptic ulcer, urinary retention, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and hyperthyroidism

10 Antihistamines: Interactions
Interactant drug Effect of Interaction Rifampin May reduce the absorption of antihistamine, fexofenadine, for example Monamine oxidase inhibitors Increase in anticholinergic and sedative effects of antihistamine CNS depressants Possible additive CNS depressant effect Beta blockers Risk for increased cardiovascular effects, with diphenhydramine, for example Aluminum- or magnesium-based antacids Decreased concentrations of antihistamine in blood, fexofenadine, for example

11 Decongestants: Actions and Uses
Nasal decongestants: sympathomimetic drugs, which produce localized vasoconstriction of the small blood vessels of the nasal membranes Uses: Used to treat the congestion associated with the following conditions: Common cold; hay fever; sinusitis; allergic rhinitis; congestion associated with rhinitis

12 Decongestants: Adverse Reactions and Contraindications
Use of oral decongestants may result in the following adverse reactions: Tachycardia and other cardiac arrhythmias; nervousness; restlessness; insomnia; blurred vision; nausea; vomiting Contradicted: In patients with known hypersensitivity and patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors Sustained-released pseudoephedrine is contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age

13 Decongestants: Precautions
Decongestants are used cautiously in patients with: Thyroid disease; diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular disease; prostatic hypertrophy; coronary artery disease; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; glaucoma Pregnant women should consult with their primary health care provider before using these drugs

14 Decongestants: Interactions
Interactant drug Effect of interaction MAOIs Severe headache, hypertension, and possibly hypertensive crisis Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs Initial hypertension episode followed by bradycardia

15 Antitussives, Expectorants, and Mucolytics: Actions and Uses
Expectorants increase the production of respiratory secretions, which in turn appears to decrease the viscosity of the mucus. This helps to raise secretions from the respiratory passages Antitussives are used to relieve a nonproductive cough depress the cough center located in the medulla and are called centrally acting drugs Benzonatate (Tessalon) and potassium iodide are exceptions; they work peripherally by anesthetizing stretch receptors in the respiratory passages, thereby decreasing cough. Expectorants are used to help bring up respiratory secretions

16 Antitussives, Expectorants, and Mucolytics: Adverse Reactions
Lightheadedness, Dizziness, Drowsiness or sedation Coadministration of dextromethorphan (a nonopioid antitussive) and phenelzine (a monoamine oxidase inhibitor) may result in hypotension, fever, nausea, leg jerking, and coma. Codeine-containing antitussives should be used cautiously during pregnancy and labor and in clients with COPD, acute asthma attacks, pre-existing respiratory disorders, acute abdominal conditions, head injury, increased intracranial pressure, convulsive disorders, hepatic or renal impairment, and prostatic hypertrophy. Contraindicated in history of premature infants Eucalyptus is used as a decongestant and expectorant and is found as a component in OTC products used for the treatment of sinusitis and pharyngitis. Contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation, people hypersensitive to eucalyptus and in children younger than 2 years of age

17 Nursing Process: Assessment #1
Preadministration assessment: The assessments the nurse may perform: Assess the involved areas (eyes, nose, and upper and lower respiratory tract) if the patient is receiving an antihistamine for the relief of allergy symptoms If promethazine (Phenergan) is used with an opioid to enhance the effects and reduce the dosage of the opioid, take the patient’s blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate before giving the drug

18 Nursing Process: Assessment #2
Ongoing assessment: Observe the patient for the expected effects of the antihistamine and for adverse reactions Antihistamine is given for a serious situation: assess the patient at frequent intervals until the symptoms appear relieved and for about 24 hours after the incident

19 Nursing Process: Assessment #3
Preadministration assessment: Assess the patient’s vital signs and congestion before administering the decongestants; assess the lung sounds and bronchial secretions to include color and amount of sputum, and note in the patient’s records; obtain the history of the use of the products to include home remedies may have tried Ongoing assessment: Assess the patient’s blood pressure, pulse, and congestion;include assessing lung sounds, frequency of cough, pain assessment; monitor client is has history of persistent cough; question the patient about attaining therapeutic effects and presence of adverse reactions

20 Nursing Process: Diagnoses
Risk for Injury related to drowsiness, dizziness, or sedation Ineffective Airway Clearance related to pooling of or thick secretions Impaired Oral Mucous Membranes related to dry mouth, nose, and throat

21 Nursing Process: Planning #1
The expected outcomes for the patient depend on the reason for administration of the antihistamine but may include: Optimal response to therapy Supporting of patient needs related to managing adverse reactions Understanding of and compliance with the prescribed treatment regimen

22 Nursing Process: Planning #2
Expected outcomes for the patients include: Optimal response to therapy Support of patient needs related to the management of adverse reactions Understanding of and compliance with the prescribed treatment regimen

23 Nursing Process: Implementation #1
Monitoring and managing patient needs: Ineffective Airway Clearance Encourage increase fluids Assist with deep diaphragmatic breaths Change positions often Impaired oral mucous membranes: Dryness of the mouth, nose, and throat: Offer the patient frequent sips of water or ice chips to relieve the symptoms Risk of injury: Assist the patient with ambulation Place the call light within easy reach and instruct to call before attempting to get out of bed and ambulating

24 Nursing Process: Implementation #2
Loratadine or other rapidly disintegrating tablets can be administered with or without water and are placed on the tongue, where the tablet dissolves almost instantly. Fexofenadine is not administered within 2 hours of an antacid. Chewing benzonatate (Tessalon) tablets may result in a local anesthetic effect (oropharyngeal anesthesia) with possible choking as a result, therefore inform clients that they need to swallow whole. Acetylcysteine has a distinctive, disagreeable odor. The medication may smell like “rotten eggs.” Although this odor may be nauseating, the smell dissipates quickly.

25 Nursing Process: Implementation #3
Promoting an optimal response to therapy Ineffective breathing pattern: Overuse of topical form: “Rebound” nasal congestion Patient is taught to take the drug exactly as prescribed or discontinue the drug therapy gradually

26 Nursing Process: Implementation #4
Educating the patient and family: Review the dosage regimen and possible adverse drug reactions with the patient

27 Nursing Process: Implementation #5
Educating the patient and family: The nurse should include the following points in the teaching plan: Use this product as directed by the primary health care provider or on the container label • Understand that overuse of topical nasal decongestants can make the symptoms worse, causing rebound congestion If using a spray, do not allow the tip of the container to touch the nasal mucosa and do not share the container with anyone

28 Nursing Process: Implementation #5
Educating the patient and family: The nurse should include the following points in the teaching plan: • Do not exceed the recommended dose. • Avoid irritants, such as cigarette smoke, dust, or fumes, to decrease irritation to the throat. • Drink plenty of fluids (if not contraindicated by disease process). A fluid intake of 1500 to 2000 mL is recommended. • If taking oral capsules, do not chew or break open the capsules; swallow them whole. • If taking a lozenge, avoid drinking fluids for 30 minutes after use to avoid losing effectiveness of the drug. • Antihistamines may cause dryness of the mouth and throat. Frequent sips of water, sucking on hard candy, or chewing gum (preferably sugarless) may relieve this problem. • High doses of antihistamines can contribute to mental changes in vulnerable populations.

29 Nursing Process: Implementation #5
Educating the patient and family: The nurse should include the following points in the teaching plan: • Do not drive or perform other hazardous tasks if drowsiness occurs. This effect may diminish with continued use. • Avoid the use of alcohol, as well as other drugs that cause sleepiness or drowsiness, while taking these drugs. • Nasal burning and stinging may occur with the topical decongestants. This effect usually disappears with use. • Use of INS can result in a fungal infection of the nares. Contact the primary health care provider if the area becomes reddened, sore, or you can see white patches. • If the cough is not relieved or becomes worse, contact the primary health care provider. • If chills, fever, chest pain, or sputum production occurs or changes color, contact the primary health care provider as soon as possible.

30 Nursing Process: Evaluation #1
Mucous membranes are moist and intact No injury is reported The patient and family understand the drug regimen

31 Nursing Process: Evaluation #2
The patient maintains effective breathing pattern The therapeutic effect is achieved The patient demonstrates an understanding of and compliance with the drug regimen

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