2 W. Kelly BackgroundWorking in Plastic Development since 1975 (GE Plastics, Amoco)Biopolymer area since 1993 (EcoChem, Chronopol, Hycail BV, Cereplast, Natural Solutions)Over 20 patents and patent applicationsCommercialized numerous products – generating millions of $ in salesUnderstand reactive extrusion and blending TechnologyCurrently - still consulting with several companies
4 PCL is not a bioplastic – but is biodegradable Bioplastic DefinedThe term "bioplastic" refers to a biodegradable plastics and/or plastics derived from renewable resources (the definition from European Bioplastics)Interest in bio-materials has increased significantly due to concerns related to global climate change.PCL is not a bioplastic – but is biodegradable
5 Biodegradable plastics Considering the source/base we distinguish:natural polymers (PHA)modified natural polymers (viscose, methyl cellulose)synthetic polymers (PLA,polyesters)
6 Bioplastic Source/base: renewable or not renewable Plastics: 265 M tons (2010) – Plastics EuropeBioplastics: M tonsbiodegradable (non renewable resources) tplastics from renewable resources tSource/base: renewable or not renewableMaterial: biodegradable or not biodegradable
7 Biodegradable vs. compostable? Compostable plastic is a subset of biodegradable plastic that will decompose in the conditions and time frames during composting process Compostable plastic is always biodegradableBiodegradable plastic is not always compostable
8 What is compostable plastic? Compostable plastic is one that meets all scientifically recognized standards of compostabilty regardless of the origin of carbon.European normis EN 13432,and USA norm isASTM D6400
9 ASTM D6400 – Main Factors 1. Mineralization 90 percent conversion to carbon dioxide, water and biomass through the action of microorganismsThe same rate of degradation as other organic waste (ie. leaves, grass ...)Time period of 180 days or less2. FragmentationNot more than 10% of the original dry weight of test material shall fail to pass through a 2 mm fraction sieve.3. The impact on the environmentNo negative impact on flora and fauna
10 BioPlastic Industry Currenty Account for < 1 % of Total Global Plastic UsageGrowth of BioPlastic expected to exceed 2.1 billion pounds soonBiobased Building Blocks showing strong drive forward: BioAmber (succinic acid – used by PTTMCC BioChem in Thailand, sale office in USA), Novomer (polypropylene carbonate), DuPont / Tate & Lyle (1,3-propanediol), Genomatica (1,4-butanediol)BioPlastic growth is an evolution – not a revolution. Growth based on new companies, new materials and new capacities.BioPlastics are complementary to existing fossil-based plastics – offering new options based on societal and consumer trends & demands.
12 Alternative Feedstock Developments Based on Oil Price Instability. Several biopolymer companies are looking into alternative feedstocksNatureWorks is planning to use non-food alternative feedstock from biomass in their new plant located in ThailandBASF is looking into replacing one of their key raw materials it uses in production of its EcoFlex polyester resin (PBAT) with a biobased material. BASF produces Ecovio (Blend w/ INGEO PLA) to claim biocontent.
13 Bioplastics Growth Expectation Regions supporting Composting and Environmental Concerns – Left Coast (CA, OR, WA). Driven by Green Products, Healthier Lifestyles, and Restoring the Environment.Businesses reacting to Government Agencies, NGOs and Consumer Demand for Eco-Friendly ProductsOngoing Shift in Consumer/Corporate Behavior to Environmental IssuesCone/Echo Global Corporate Responsibility Survey, 94 % of consumers would buy a product that has an environmental benefit and 76% have already purchased an environmental product in the past 12 months
14 World production capacity of bioplastics by material type in 2011
15 Market share of bioplastics by application use in 2011.
16 What Is Fueling The Growth of Bioplastics? Petroleum supplies are dwindling while demand for oil-based goods is risingFor every 4 barrels of oil used, only 1 new barrel is discovered.Petrochemical-based plastics consume about 2.5 billion barrels of oil annually.Supplies will run short within the next 20 to 100 years.Governments and consumers are demanding action to reduce dependence on oil.Increasing concerns over global warming, environmental pollution, toxic affects of some residual monomers and additives are driving legislation and consumer “backlash” against conventional plastics
17 Development of bioplastic market - main drivers Technical properties and functionality is sellingHigh consumer acceptance (eco marketing)Organic recycling is a cost-efficient, new recycling optionPromotes sustainabilityBlends with Food & Organic Waste ProgramsAvailable in select regions that have a program set up
18 For renewable resources, the rate of harvest should not exceed the rate of regeneration. [For pollution] The rates of waste generation from projects should not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environmentFor nonrenewable resources the depletion of the nonrenewable resources should require comparable development of renewable substitutes for that resource.Herman Daly, 1990
19 Expected Bioplastic Growth by Type Bio-PE (bio-polyethylene)Polylactic Acid (PLA)Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)Bio-PET (bio-polyethylene terephthalate)Bio Starch BlendsBiodegradable polyesterBioplastics Industry Overview Guide
20 Bioplastics Growth Challenges Terminology confusionConflicting definitions – claims being made for products that fail to degrade under ASTM or European Standards.Lack of infrastructureCompostingLimited amount of funding available for bioplasticsLimited availability of biobased feedstocksTight supply of biobased chemicalsCost of Finished Goods versus Existing Plastics (2x to 5x more)
21 Bioplastic – Niche Applications Bioplastic / Marketing Strategy : Coke-Cola’s PlantBottle (but costs more than PET significantly)Avantium’s PEF (polyethylene furanoate) which is a polyester similar to PET – JV with BASF announcedDo these materials Compost?Are they able to be use in Existing Recycle Streams?Costs Relative to PET?Will These Win Customer Acceptance?
22 Marketplace Opportunities Packaging: Foam containers, Food Service, cosmetic packagingFibers: Woven and non-woven, Textiles (spun fibers)Construction and housing: Carpets, insulation, wood compositesBottles, Medicine Jars, Personal CareFilms: Blown and Cast for Carrier Bags, HorticultureConsumer Products: Toys, Electronics (housings)Price Point for Market Entry - $1.50 to $2.75
23 Considering Price Points Unmodified PLA sells for ~$0.80 per volumePBS, PHA, PBAT sells in a range: $1.70 to $2.50 per volumePrice point for CAPA should be < $3.00“Sell the Steak or Sell the Sizzle”Modified CAPA products addressing Marketplace Opportunity may be priced to sell very competitively.
24 POLYLACTIC ACID Advantages Limitations Made from a renewable resource Can be formed into containers and packaging for food and consumer goodsCan be compostableLimitationsLow flexibilityLong mold cycle timeLow heat distortion temperature
25 PLA / PCL PLA / PCL studied extensively PCL adds the rubbery phase, with its lower TgElongation at break increase at > 60 wt. % PCLAddition of small amount PLA-PCL-PLA tri-block copolymer will enhanced dispersion of PCL in PLA with significantly improved flexibility (~ 4 wt.%) allowing the addition of increased PCL(Note – other ways exist to compatibilize and enhance properties)Products and Applications of Biopolymers, by C Verbeek, p. 34
26 CAPA Application – Real Life Issue: PLA brittle behavior and breaks on-line processing at PSI (Plastic Suppliers, Inc.)Solution: adding about 5 wt.% CAPA 6800 to PLA pellets in line, resulting in reduced failures and less brittle behavior still maintaining optical clarity.Circa 2006 – 2007 DaniMer Application
27 CAPA Application – Real Life Opportunity: International Paper wanted a renewable resourced based biodegradable paper coating for their Cup Stock.Solution: PLA by itself was not working due to flexibility issues and sealing behavior (made too many bad seals causing leaks). Special formulation made using CAPA FB100 plus additives was qualified and implemented at IP with very tight control over moisture.DaniMer Application – circa
28 CAPA Application – Real Life Issue: PLA will form Crystalized Fiber when drawn but will not tack to adhere to any other substrate.Solution: Kimberly-Clark produced tri-lubed fiber with core 100 wt.% PLA and shell made from 95 / 5 : PLA / Capa 6800 – which would allow for tack – thus bonding to substrate.Chronopol Application – circa 1998
29 CAPA PossibilitiesUsing CAPA (6800, 6500, or FB100) modification is possibleAdding PLA, and Minerals plus “Rx extrusion w/ additives” will lower costsNumerous product possibilities – molding, extrusion, foam, fibers, paper coatingsAssuming from $0.15 to $0.35 per pound for Compounding and PackagingSelling price based on Market Realities – large volumes may require lower price pointSell Technical Solution versus Selling just Base ResinExample Former GE Plastic (now Sabic) – Noryl : Base resin PPO but > 200+ modified forms sold, sales volume > 250 million pounds.Their Exists Hugh Outside Twin-Screw Compounding Capabilities – that are IdleTrellis Earth, MHG, Spectra Color – many others
30 CAPA PossibilitiesCAPA 6800 plus PLA (INGEO 4032D) with small particle mineral plus PDLA polymer (Corbion) – will produce high heat composite materials exceeding 100 0COpens up more hot serve applications – food servicePotential Consumer electronicsAutomotive possibilities3-D printingTechnical Applications served by Engineering resinsFreezer Packaging – due to PCL low temperature Tg ( - 60 oC)Many others not imagined as yet
31 “[Man] possesses a body shaped by physical, chemical and biological elements, and can only survive and develop if the ecological environment is favorable. Any harm done to the environment, therefore, is harm done to humanity. “Pope Francis – UN General Assembly in NY, Septemter 25, 2015
32 William Kelly Natural Solutions www.natsolu.com Thank YouWilliam KellyNatural Solutions