Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "CHEMISTRY OF AMINES AND CARBOHYDRATES GROUP 3"— Presentation transcript:


2 CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrate are a family of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only which are its major element. The general formula of carbohydrate is Cx(H2O)y where x and y re integers (whole numbers). Carbohydrate fall naturally into simple and complex sugar each of which can be subdivided. but before the classification, biologically, in plants, are produced during photosynthesis (photosynthesis is the process whereby carbondioxide is combined with water and mineral salt solution in the presence of sunlight energy), while chlorophyll act as catalyst thereby producing carbohydrate and oxygen as by-product

3 Equation for the reaction
6CO2 +6H2O C6H12O6 +6O2 Organism that are green are those that are able to preform photosynthesis i.e. to produce their own food, while non-green organism’s or plant and animals take their own carbohydrate from the one produced by green plants. Hence, plants are referred to as primary producer. To start the division, the simple sugar carbohydrates are monosaccharide and disaccharides MONOSACCHARIDE The monosaccharide are the simple sugar carbohydrates which are crystalline, soluble in water and have a sweet taste. By definition, monosaccharide sugar are carbohydrate, one unit of which cannot be hydrolyze because it is already at its simplest form. Examples of monosaccharide sugar are glucose, fructose and galactose e.g. glucose + water no reaction. Monosaccharide carbohydrates are the simplest sugars, containing from 3 to 6 atoms of carbon in each molecule.

4 This are; 3 carbon trioses 4 carbon tetroses 5 carbon pentoses 6 carbon hexoses The general formula for monosaccharide is (CH2O)n or CnH2nOn. Trioses=C3H6O3 which is the simplest monosaccharide, out of the monosaccharide sugar, only the hexoses occur in appreciable amount in human food. Hexoses are also the best known sugar. 1. GLUCOSE: This is the most common sugar in the mammalian body, it is commonly referred to as the grape sugar or dextrose. Its also the most widely distributed monosaccharide in nature. It has the formula C6H12O6. It’s the unit from which most polysaccharides are made. It is a colorless solid with sweet taste and readily soluble in water. A large quantity of glucose can be found in the juice of ripe grape and other sweet fruits as well as in honey roofs, leaves, flowers and animal blood. Little quantity of glucose can be found in human urine.

5 Because of their symmetrical carbon atoms in the molecule, solution of glucose rotate and polarize light, the rotation is to the right, hence the alternative name dextrose which is often used in industries. This properties can be used to distinguish glucose from another simple sugar e.g. fructose. Glucose is a reducing agent, its able to reduce copper compound from copper(iii) to copper(ii). This is the basis for using benedict solution and Fehling test. STRUCTURE

6 2. FRUCTOSE fructose is another simple sugar, present in honey and a few plants. It is a colorless crystalline compound, about as sweet as glucose. It is more soluble than glucose. Both glucose and fructose decompose on heating and therefore has no fixed melting point. Fructose is also the kind of sugar derived from fruits (fruit sugar), it has the same fomule as glucose but different structure (C6H12O6)

Fructose is found in free form in some fruits and also in honey. It is also a constituent of sucrose and some complex carbohydrate, it rotate polarize light to the left, hence the alternative name is laevulose. Glucose is an aldose because it contains alkano (-CHO) group and fructose is ketose because it contains alkanone (-CO) group. LABORATORY PREPARATION OF GLUCOSE It can be obtained in the laboratory by hydrolyzing sucrose with dilute tetraoxosulphate (iv) acid to form glucose and fructose. The reaction often takes place in the presence of ethanol which dissolves fructose but not glucose. This glucose separates out as crystals and is filtered off. C12H22O11+H2O C6H12O6+C6H12O6 glucose fructose INDUSTRIAL PREPARATION Industrially, glucose is obtained by acid hydrilysis. Starch is boiled with dilute tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid for about 2 hours. (C6H10 O5)n C6H12O6 starch glucose After hydrolysis, the acid is neutralized by the addition of calcium trioxocarbonate (iv).

8 This react with tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid to form with tetraoxosulphate(vi) (CaSO4) which is insoluble and as such is precipitated. The glucose solution is then filtered off and subsequently concentrated by evaporation. The concentrated solution known as molasses is left to cool and solidify. PROPERTIES OF GLUCOSE 1a). Glucose is a strong reducing agent. It reduces ammoniacal silver trioxonitrate(V) to silver. Since the silver deposited at the bottom of the test tube reflects like a mirror, this is often referred to as the silver mirror test. b). It also reduces copper(ii) to copper (i) when reacted with Fehling's solution thereby producing a brick red precipitate of copper(I) oxide 2. When glucose react with conc. Tetraoxosulphate(vi)acid, it is dehydrated and a black residue of carbon is left behind. C6H12O6 6H2O 6C 3. Glucose undergoes fermentation, in the presence of yeast to produce ethanol and carbondioxide C6H12O6 C2H5OH + 2CO2 USES 1. Glucose is used as an immediate source of energy as this is the form of energy most easily absorbed by the body. 2. It is also used in the manufacturing of sweets.

9 DISACCHARIDES SUGAR A disaccharide molecule can be obtained by combining two molecules of monosaccharides. The two molecules may be of the same type or of different type. E.g. glucose + glucose maltose (malt sugar) glucose + fructose sucrose (cane sugar) glucose + galactose lactose (milk sugar) The two molecules are usually bounded or linked together by glycocidic bound. During the formation of bound, one hydrogen atom will be removed from the first monosaccharide unit and hydroxide OH will be removed from the second monosaccharide unit, which results to formation of water. SUCROSE Sucrose is a disaccharide, it is the ordinary sugar we eat everyday. It is produced from the juice of sugar cane, sucrose is a complex sugar with the formula C12 H22 O11

Sucrose is prepared from juices of sugar cane. The juices extracted from sugar cane is warmed to about 80 degree centigree. The solution is then treated with slaked lime and carbon(vi)oxide. This precipitate many of the impurities which are then filtered off. The resulting sucrose solution is concentrated by evaporation. On cooling, the concentrated solution crystals of then dark brown raw sugar separates out from the mother liquor which is known as molasses. The molasses still contains about 60% sugar and is used in ethanol production by fermentation. The brown sugar is impure. This is treated with slaked lime andf then carbon(iv)oxide before it is finally decolorized by animal charcoal. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE 1. It is a white crystalline, odorless solid with a sweet taste 2. It is soluble in water but not in ethanol.

1. When sucrose is hydrolyzed with dilute tetraoxosulphate(vi) or hydrochloric acid, it gives equal amount of glucose and fructose. 2. Sucrose chars on strong heating or warming with concentrated tetraoxosulphate(vi)acid. C12H22O C. 3. it does not act as a reducing agent. USES OF SUCROSE 1. For sweetening foods. 2. It is used to preserve food 3. It is also used to produce ethanol by fermentation. MALTOSE Maltose is another disaccharide with molecular fomular C12H22O11. Its structural formula is

12 Maltose is obtained by the action of malt which contains enzyme called diastase on starch. PROPERTIES OF MALTOSE 1. It is crystalline 2. It is soluble in water 3. It melts between degree centigree 4. It is less sweet than sugar 5. When hydrolyzed with dilute acid or enzyme maltose, two molecules of glucose are produced. 6. It is a reducing sugar, it reduces Fehling's solution. LACTOSE Lactose known as milk sugar is also a disacccharide and it is found in plants. Its molecular foemula is C12H22O11 while its structural formula is :

13 PROPERTIES OF LACTOSE it is a white crystalline solid
It melts at 203 degree centigrade with decomposition It is soluble in water it is less sweet than sucrose When hydrolyzed by diluted acids or by the enzyme lactose, it produce a molecule each of glucose and galactose. POLYSACCHARIDE Polysaccharides are a group of carbohydrates that are composed of very long chains of monosaccharides linked together by condensation. Polysaccharides are polymers of glucose. Under appropriate condition disaccharide link up through glycocidic bond to form a polysaccharide. Examples are cellulose, starch and gum. Polysaccharides can be hydrolyzed step by step with dilute acid to yield the component of monosaccharide as the final products. The general molecular formula of polysaccharide is (C6H10O5)n where n is a very large number.


15 STARCH Starch is an important polysaccharrides which occur naturally in green plants. Plant store their foods in form of starch, the commercial sources being maize, wheat, barley, yam, rice, potatoes and cereals. Its structure consist of many units of glucose molecules while its molecular formular is (C6H10O5)n PREPARATION The raw material to be used are peeled cassava tubers which should be washed and grated into pulp. Water is then added to the pulp to extract starch. It forms suspension and this can stay for sometime before the water above is decanted and starch residue allowed to dry. PYSICAL PROPERTIES Starch is a white odourless, tasteless powder with the formula (C6H10O5) It is insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water forming a viscous solution which sets into a jelly on cooling. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Starch gives the familiar characteristic deep blue color with iodine solution

16 2. Hot dilute acids hydrolyze starch into maltose and glucose 3
2. Hot dilute acids hydrolyze starch into maltose and glucose 3. It does not reduce Fehling’s solution. 4. It decomposes on heating in the presence of the enzyme diastase to form maltose sugar. TEST FOR STARCH Add a few drops of iodine to some boiled starch. A dark blue coloration which disappears on heating and reappears on cooling result. USES OF STARCH 1. It is used for stiffening linen. 2. It is used to produce ethanol and glucose 3. It is used mainly as food. CELLULOSE Cellulose is the highest of the polysaccharides. It is the main component of plant cell walls and plant fibers. The principal industrial sources are cotton and wood each of which contains about 50% of cellulose. Other sources of cellulose for textile purposes are floxi china

17 Grass, hemp and jute. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES It forms transparent fibers when it is pure. It is insoluble in water and in most organic solvents. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Cellulose can be completely hydrolyzes to glucose by hot acids Hydrolysis of cellulose can also be carried out readily by the enzyme cellulase which is present in the digestive system of termites and herbivores animals. USES OF CELLULOSE It is used is the manufacture of explosives, surface coating paper, textiles and ropes. In the manufacture of gum, cotton and explosives.

They form the bulk of foods for all organisms. All organisms obtain their energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates during respiration. Carbohydrates forms the part of the structural unit of cells of living matters. They form a very important building unit for both plants and animals They contribute to what animals need for their activities. AMINES Amines are organic derivatives of ammonia and, like ammonia, they are basic. Amines are the most important type of organic base found in nature. We can think of them as substituted ammonia molecules in which one, two, or three of the ammonia hydrogen have been replaced by an organic group

19 Secondary amine Tertiary amine
The structure reveal that like ammonia, amines are pyramidal. The nitrogen atom has three groups bonded to it and has a non bonding pairs of electrons. amines are classified according to the number of alkyl or aryl groups attached to the nitrogen. There are three types: primary amine Secondary amine Tertiary amine

20 In a primary (10) amine, one of the hydrogen is replaced by an organic group. In a secondary (20) amine, two of the hydrogen are replaced. In a tertiary (30) amine, three organic groups replaced the hydrogen. The ability of primary and secondary amines to form N-H-N hydrogen bonds is reflected in their boiling points. Primary amines have boiling points well above those of comparable alcohols Tertiary amines do not have an N-H bond. As a result, they

21 Cannot form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with other tertiary amines
Cannot form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with other tertiary amines. Consequently their boiling points are lower than those of primary or secondary amines of comparable molecular weight The intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed by primary and secondary amines are not as strong as the hydrogen bond formed by alcohols because nitrogen is not as electronegative as oxygen. For this reason, primary and secondary amines have lower boiling point than alcohols.

22 All amines can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water (O-H---N)
All amines can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water (O-H---N). As a result, small amines (six or fewer carbons) are soluble in water. As we have noted for other families of organic molecules, water solubility decreases as the length of the hydrocarbon ( hydrophobic) portion of the molecule increases. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AMINES The first two members of amines- methylamine and ethylamine are gases at room temperature and pressure. They have strong smell of fish. 3. They are very soluble in cold water like ammonia. RNH2(aq) + H2O RNH3+(aq) + OH-(aq) e.g. C2H5NH2(g) + H2O(l) C2H5NH3+(aq) + OH-(aq) For ammonia: NH3(g) + H2O NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) 4. They burn in air but ammonia does not.

1.Methylamine and ethylamine turn damp red litmus paper blue like ammonia. 2. They form salt with mineral acids like ammonia C2H5NH2(g) + HCL(g) C2H5NH3 + CL- (ethylammonium chloride) Ammonia NH3(g) + HCL(g) NH4 + CL- (ammonium chloride) 3. When amine salts are warmed with alkalis like ammonium salts, they liberate free amine. USES OF AMINE Amines can be used in making polyamides or nylon Amines are used as corrosion inhibitors in boilers and in lubricating oils They are used as antioxidants for rubber and roofing asphalt. They are also used as stabilizers for cellulose nitrate explosives They are used as protectants against damage from gamma radiation They are used as anticling and water proofing gents for textiles

24 NOMENCLATURE OF AMINE In systematic nomenclature, primary amines are named according to the following rules: Determine the name of the parent compound, the longest continuous carbon chain containing the amine group Replace the –e ending of the alkane chain with amine. Following this pattern, the alkane becomes an alkanamine; for instance ethane becomes ethanamine. Number the parent chain to give the carbon bearing the amine group the lowest possible number. Name and number all substituents, and add them as prefixes to the “alkanamine” name. for instance, CH3 NH Methanamine CH3CH2CH2 NH propanamine CH3CH2CH2CHCH3 NH Pentanamine

25 For secondary or tertiary amines the prefix N-alkyl is added to the name of the parent compound. For example, CH3 NH CH2CH N-Methylethanamine CH N,N-Dimethylmethanamine CH3 N CH3 Common names are often used for the simple amines. The common names of the alkyl groups bonded to the amines nitrogen are followed by the ending –amine. Each group is listed alphabetically in one continuous word followed by the suffix amine. CH3 NH Methylamine CH3 NH CH N,N-Dimethylmethanamine CH3 CH3 N CH Trimethylamine CH3 CH2 NH Ethylamine


Similar presentations

Ads by Google