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Automation and Control System

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Presentation on theme: "Automation and Control System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Automation and Control System
purpose Collect and process information, Execute control actions automatically or as decision support system. location Cabling and workstations through all ship. Computers in the engine room, heavy duty local control terminals also in engine rooms. main components Computers and work stations. Electric and optical cables with routers. design problems Expensive system, cabling and testing time consuming. Subsystem compatibility problems. Rapid development brings unmature solutions. Finding safe and remote location for cables and routers. operation problems Many software related problems. Updating management is critical. Operator skills need constant improvement and better operator interfaces. Systems influence on ship safety.

2 Main Switchboard and Starter boards
purpose Main switchboard is backbone of electric system, including control and monitoring functions. Starter boards control large electric motors. location Main switchboard close to generators in control room (or adjacent space). Due to safety reasons often divided and placed in two switchboard rooms. Other switchboards seldom in engine room. Centralised starter boards in control room or engine room. main components Main switchboard design problems Main switchboard length, up to 14 meter. Big cables & high ventilation demand increase space problems. Emergency conditions -arching, short circuits. operation problems Seldom systematic problems.

3 Main Switchboard and Starter boards
Main switchboard in large ferry engine control room

4 Emergency Generator and Switchboard
purpose To supply and distribute electric for vital consumers when power plant is not available. Capacity and operation regulated by Class and SOLAS main components Emergency diesel generator with automatic start located above main deck. Access from open deck, self-contained plant. Emergency cells located above main deck. Supply power after main voltage loss, until emergency generator operates. Sufficient alone in some small cargo ships. Emergency switchboard, located near the power source. Sections: 400V ES1 feeds fire pump, bilge pump, steering gear and other emergency consumers 240V ES2 feeds navigation instruments, fed by ES1 240V ES3 feeds alarm system, emergency & navigation lights, fed by ES2 or cells operation problems Starting failures of emergency generator / emergency fire pump

5 Main Switchboard and Starter boards
Main switchboard for 2 generator ship - total length 9 meter Starters & Shore GEN GEN Shore Starters & V Section Feeders Supply P Supply SB Feeders To Emerg. board Bustie To 220V Section Normal cubicle height is Free 300 mm space above and 400 mm below the floor plates required. Cubicle breadth is 600 or 800 mm Add 1 cubicle for each generator. 2 cubicle if main switchboard is divided in halves. 3 …4 cubicles and transition piece if halves installed in separate rooms. Medium voltage (>1 kV) switchboard is abt. 20 % longer. Cubicles 800 or 1000 mm Separate starter boards: cubicle (600 mm) for … 3 motors.

6 Generator and Switchboard Location
Emergency diesel generator and switchboard Cargo Main Transformers Automation control room switchboard board Main Control Cargo pump Desk converters

7 Generator and Switchboard Location
3 diesel generators on level 9000 mm Shaft generator

8 Generator and Switchboard Location
Overhaul of a 1600 kVA shaft generator after bearing failure Vulkan RaTo-type shaft generator coupling

9 Steam and Feed water System
purpose Generate and convey thermal energy to consumers Water steam is practical. Alternatives are thermal oil and (for MDO ships only) hot water location Main components often in main engine room instead of dedicated spaces. Insulated pipes are lead to consumers through all ship. main components Normally two oil fired boilers and exhaust gas boiler for each main engine. Water tanks and pump assemblies design problems High capacity boilers and exhaust gas boilers (including overhaul space) cause space problems in passenger ships. Pumps location on low level can also be difficult operation problems Feed water related problems Exhaust gas boiler fouling and soot fires

10 Typical Steam and Feed Water System
Mixing does not allow too cold water in boiler Gas outlet temperature 180oC Steam to consumers Preheating section Evaporation section SW cooled dumping condenser to handle excess steam Oil fire boiler (auxiliary boiler) Circulation pumps Condensate tank Feed water tank Return from consumers Cooling coil Feed water pumps

11 Steam and Feed Water System Capacity
Most ships never use all oil fired boiler capacity. Large boilers in crude oil / black products tankers. Exhaust gas boilers operate dry, use dumping condenser or by-pass. Calculate for each consumer group, see table kg steam = 2260 MJ

12 Oil Fired Boiler Dimensions
Steam collecting space Finned water tubes inside the some tubes Furnace Brickwork

13 Steam Boiler and Feed Water Pump Location
Oil fired boilers Exhaust gas boiler Surplus steam Feed water condenser pumps Feed water tank

14 Fire Protection To activate fire alarm and permit early and efficient fire extinguishing. Ship divided in machinery spaces, cargo space, accommodation (each with multiple fire zones). Fire water system required in all ships. Needed also for cooling of structures. Number and capacity of pumps according to rules. Secondary system is always required. Carbon dioxide: all fires, efficient in enclosed space, lethal, testing difficult Water fog: newcomer, all fires, non-toxic, complicated plant, testing easy Halon: efficient, mildly toxic, banned due to ozone layer depleting effect Foam: various foams for various purposes, difficult after cleaning (Powder) Total flooding (Space) extinguishers  Local extinguishers Local compulsory in existing pax vessel by October 2005 Manual release  Automatic release

15 Fresh water systems purpose location main components design problems
To distillate fresh water from brine utilising waste heat. When waste heat is not sufficient, steam from oil fired boilers is used. To filter and treat water for safe utilisation as technical or potable water. To store pressurised hot and cold water for consumers. location Large multistage units with sea water pumps located in dedicated rooms. Water tanks distributed in various compartments. Cargo ships the small evaporators and hydrophores in main engine room. main components Multistage units & water tanks in cruise liners. Otherwise small components. Reverse osmosis units: small, demand high pumping power, 300 ppm salt. design problems Large evaporator size and high energy consumption. More stages mean low heat consumption but increase cost and dimensions. operation problems Evaporator maintenance, bacteria contamination would be disaster.

16 Multistage evaporator Fresh water system
Fresh water systems Multistage evaporator Fresh water system Land connections Port and Sb Technical water Filter Hydrophore UV unit Evaporator Mineralisation Chlorination Dimensions Transfer pump Storage tanks Note that single stage units require double length space for opening Hot Heater Cold water water

17 Overhaul space Service space Important overhaul items must be provided
Main and aux. engine piston Turbocharger rotor Charge air cooler inserts Main and big end bearings Clutch and coupling elements Generator rotors Propeller and intermediate shafts Exhaust gas boiler inserts Large sea water pumps Feed water pumps Pipe systems, especially HFO, SW Service space must be provided Centrifuge purifiers Fuel injectors Fuel oil booster unit Sea water filters Piping accessories Make sure that floor plate and platforms are reinforced for heavy items!

18 Material transport routes
Material transport to workshop and storages Main engine large spare parts Auxiliary engine piston Large valves Screw pumps Pump impellers Tools Transport to/from land Main engine large spare parts Large pumps Pipe, bar and plate material Generator rotor Propeller and intermediate shaft (holes cut in bulkhead may be accepted but no any major component dismantling) Make sure that floor plate and platforms are reinforced for heavy items!

19 Overhaul and Material Transport
Traverse crane above main engine (Port) Heavy main engine spare parts secured Engine Engineer store workshop Service lift and hatch on main deck Lift rail above each genset, leading to ME traverse crane reach area Aft thruster motor and shaft generator rotor (Port) overhaul is foreseen

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