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Safe Slinging Practices

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Presentation on theme: "Safe Slinging Practices"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safe Slinging Practices

2 Types of Slings Wire Rope Slings Chain Slings Synthetic Web Slings

3 Ropes, chains, and slings
Primary hazard is structural failure due to: Overloading (“the weakest link”) Deterioration and/or wear Environmental exposure Improper rigging Abuse

4 Natural fibre ropes IS: 1084—1969 Manila Rope IS: 1321—1970 Sisal Rope

5 SWL of Fibre ropes Value Condition SWL ONE
Rope of which original Fibre strength is not reduced Same as per new Rope TWO Rope which has been used and shows slight external wear and chafe 80% of the New THREE Rope which has fair amount of usage,clear indication of internal and external wear, loosening of strands NOT TO BE USED FOR HOISTING

6 Fibre ropes DANGER Once a Fibre Rope is condemned it should be cut with a knife so as to ensure that it should not be used again.

7 Internal wear by Repeated Flexing
Fibre ropes Causes of Deterioration ROUGH USE Rubbing against sharp edges Damaged groves of sheaves Dragging from under the load HARMFUL CONTACT With water, oil, chemicals and heat BAD STORAGE Heap on wet floor, poorly ventilated godown Internal wear by Repeated Flexing

8 Synthetic Fibre ropes Advantages
IS: 4572– 1968 Polyamide (Nylon Filament Rope) IS: 5175– 1969 Poly Propylene Rope IS: 8674– 1978 Polyethylene Rope Advantages Light in Weight Higher Strength Increased Resistance to Repeated Bending, Flexing and Abrasion Resistance to water and Choice of Selection

9 Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings Components of Wire Rope

10 Left Lay Right Lay


12 Crushing Because of loose winding on drum, rope was pulled in between underlying wraps and crushed out of shape.

13 Birdcaging The sudden release of a load cause birdcaging.Here individual strands open away from each other, displacing the core.

14 Locking of strands Premature breakage of wires resulted from "locking" of strands, which was caused by insufficient lubrication.

15 Abrasion Neglect of periodical inspection left this rope in service too long, resulting in considerable abrasion.

16 Kinking Kink or "dog leg“ was caused by improper handling and/or installation. A kink causes excessive localized or spot abrasion.

17 Reverse bending Running this rope over one sheave and under another caused fatigue breaks in wires.

18 Pitting Too much exposure combined with surface wear and loss of lubrication caused corrosion and pitting. .

19 Too long in service. Repeated winding
Wear Too long in service. Repeated winding and overwinding of this rope on a drum while it was under heavy stress caused the unusually severe wear.

20 Wire Rope Wire Rope Sling Identification Rated Load (rated capacity)
Load test date Manufacturer’s name Periodic inspection due date Broken wires (10 in one lay or 5 in one strand) Severe corrosion Localized wear Reduction in outer wire Damaged end fittings Distortion, kinking, etc…

21 Wire rope – Permissible Stretch
6 strand wire rope 6 in. for 100 ft. length 8 strand wire rope 9 to 10 in. for 100 ft. length

22 Permissible reduction in dia. (inch)
Wire rope Dia of rope Permissible reduction in dia. (inch) 3/4 3/64 7/8 to 11/8 1/16 11/4 to 11/2 3/32

23 Wire Rope Slings single-rope legs

24 sling with single-rope legs, Torpedo loop-locks and choker hook
Wire Rope Slings sling with single-rope legs, Torpedo loop-locks and choker hook




28 Chain and Chain Sling Parts of Chain Sling

29 Chain and Chain Sling Single Chain Sling

30 Chain and Chain Sling Double Chain Sling

31 Chain and Chain Sling Triple & Quadruple Chain Sling

32 Chain and Chain Sling Adjustable Chain Sling

33 Chain Sling Identification
Chain Size Manufacturers Grade Rated load and angle Reach Number of legs Manufacturers name and trademark Next inspection

34 What should you avoid while using chain slings?
impact loading: do not jerk the load when lifting or lowering the sling. This increases the actual stress on the sling. Do not drag chains. Do not splice a chain by inserting a bolt between two links. Do not shorten a chain with knots or by twisting. Do not force a hook over a link. Do not use homemade connections. Use only attachments designed for the chain. Do not heat treat or weld chain links: the lifting capacity will be reduced drastically.

35 Various defects in chain slings
Wear Cut                                                                         Stretched Links Twist or Bend

36 Periodical inspection
Clean sling before inspection. Hang the chain up or stretch the chain out on a level floor in a well-lighted area. Remove all twists. Measure the sling length. Discard if a sling has been stretched. Make a link-by-link inspection and discard if Wear exceeds 15% of a link diameter. Cut,, cracked,, burned, or corrosion pitted Twisted or bent Stretched-- Links tend to get longer

37 Chain Sling Inspection Items
Cracks, stretches, or deformed master links, coupling links, chains or other components.  One leg of a double or triple chain sling is longer than the others.   Hooks have been opened more than 15% of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.   Chain size at any point of any link is less than stated in the chart on the next slide, the sling shall be removed.  

38 Chain Slings Only chain slings purchased from the manufacturer are allowed. No homemade slings allowed!!

39 Special Precautions It is important to realize that the capacity of a sling decreases as the angle at which it is used to lift increases.

40 Rigging Devices Shackles Hooks Wire Rope Clips Wedge Sockets Eyebolts
Spreader Beams Slings

41 Shackles Recommended Not Recommended Recommended

42 Proper Use of Shackles Never replace a shackle pin with a bolt
The load will bend the bolt

43 Avoid eccentric loads Bad Good

44 Proper chocking of shackles.
Bad Good

45 Shackle Inspection

46 Hooks Manufacturers’ identification. Never weld on hooks.
Working safety latch.


48 Wire Rope Clips The most common use of wire rope clips on cranes is at wedge and socket-end fittings. The clip does not provide strength to the wedge and socket connection. It is there to prevent the wedge from accidentally being released.

49 Installing Wire Rope Clips
Installed properly as to number, direction, spacing and torque.

50 Wedge Sockets Most common method of terminating ropes on cranes.
All parts must match in size. Measure rope diameter to ensure proper size.

51 Wedge Socket - Correct Rope Installation
Live end of the rope, the straight side of the socket and the pinhole all line up.


53 Rigging Basic Rules of Rigging Know the Weight Know the Capacity




57 Load should not be left suspended or unattended
Marked with the capacity and proof tested to 125 percent of that capacity. Load should not be left suspended or unattended

58 How Horizontal Angle Affects Sling Capacity
Note: A good operating practice is to keep sling angles from going below 60 degrees

59 Sling Angle Factor Sling Angle Factor = L/H Where: L = Length of the sling. H = Height of the connection point from the horizontal plane of the load.

60 Sling Angles

61 Hook load increases on brake application during lowering
Loading lowering speed (ft/ min) Stopping distance (ft) Increase in hook load (%) 10 5 2 100 0.4 0.7 2.2 150 1.0 1.6 4.9 200 1.7 2.9 8.6 250 2.7 4.5 13.5 300 3.9 6.5 19.4 350 5.3 8.8 26.4 450 6.9 11.5 34.5 Avoid rapid acceeration or deceleration of load




65 Hand Signals APPLICABLE OSHA STANDARD (a)(4) Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site. These charts are available in other languages. An illustration of the signals must be posted at the job site

66 Sheave grooves may become grooved if cable’s nominal diameter is reduced, indicating wear.




70 Safe Usage Practices Slings should be stored off the floor and hung on racks whenever possible in a clean, dry environment. Never drag slings across the floor. 

71 Safe Usage Practices (Cont.)
Never shock load slings. Keep loads balanced to prevent overloading slings. Always lift loads straight up. Never rest a load on a sling, or pinch a sling between the load and the floor. A sling should not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling. Make sure the hook is always over the center of gravity of the load before lifting it. Do not apply a load to a twisted, knotted or kinked chain. Do not force or hammer hooks or chains into position.

72 Safe Usage Practices (Cont.)
Hands and Fingers shall not be placed between the sling and the load while the sling is being tightened around the load. Clean chains regularly as dirt and grit can cause excessive wear at the link bearing points. Never shorten a sling with knots, bolts or other makeshift devices. Protect the chain’s surface from contact with sharp corners, which can cause permanent damage through gouging or abnormal stress and wear.

73 Ropes, chains, and slings
Factors affecting load capacity Hitch type Leg angle from vertical Other issues Hook deformation (maximum 10° twist, 15% throat opening) Rope wear Consider replacement if more than 12 randomly distributed broken wires within a single strand within a single lay (ANSI B30.2) Chain deformation

74 Ropes, chains, and slings
Selected controls Proper selection of rigging materials Proper use Keeping loads within limits Regular inspection/testing of rigging components Training of riggers Other issues Hook retainers Load capacity charts for field use

75 Review Select the right sling for the job.
Inspect slings prior to use, removing from service any in question. Remember the effect of sling angles on load capacities. Properly store slings when finished to avoid damage.

76 Conclude Associates in the direction of travel should be warned to move and remain clear of a lifted load at all times. Loads should not be suspended over personnel below. Under no circumstances may anyone ride the hook or load. Directional movement should be made smoothly and deliberately. Avoid rapid movements in any direction.

77 Conclude Locate the hoist directly above the lifting point of the load before lifting. Lower loads directly below the hoist. Keep hoisting ropes vertical. Do not pull or push the load. Maintain two full wraps of cable on the hoisting drum. Never pull a hoist by the pendant cable

78 Thank you

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