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Biomes Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes Chapter 6

2 What is a biome? Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of organisms.

3 Biomes and Vegetation Biomes are described by their vegetation because plant species will determine the animal species in an area. Plants in a biome have adaptations that allow them to survive the climate conditions for that biome. Ex- size, shape, color, root depth, reproductive strategy

4 Biomes and Climate Climate- weather conditions
Climate determines plants Two most important factors: Temperature- most organisms are adapted to live in a range of temperatures. If the temperature get out of the desired range the organism my die. Precipitation-The larger the organism the more water is needed for growth and survival.

5 Biomes and Climate

6 Biomes and Climate Latitude- distance north or south from the equator.
Altitude- the height of an object above seas level.

7 Forest Biomes

8 Forest Biomes Tropical Rain Forest
Location- around the world near the equator

9 Forest Biomes Tropical Rainforest Precipitation- 200-450 cm per year
Temperature- very warm Growing season- 12 months Soil- Poor quality Leeching washes away nutrients Plants adapted with buttresses to support the tall trees with shallow root systems.

10 Forest Biomes Tropical Rainforest
Species diversity- greatest amount of diversity One hectare of land may contain 100 species of trees (compared to only a few species in a temperate forest.) Insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds Threats- Logging and clearing for farm land 7% of earth’s surface (compared to 20% in the past) Everyday about 100 acres lost

11 Forest Biomes Temperate Rainforest
Location- North America, Australia and New Zealand. Precipitation cm per year Temperature- Moderate Temperatures Growing season months since it rarely gets below freezing. Soil- Nutrient Rich

12 Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest Location- between 30 and 50 N

13 Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest
Precipitation cm per year Temperature- Warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters Growing season- 4-6 months Soil- Deep rich soil due to dropping of leaves in the autumn.

14 Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest
Species diversity- Good Species Diversity Insects, mammals, birds Amphibians and reptiles in warmer forest Threats- Logging and clearing for farm land and urbanization Forest land has increased as farm land has been abandoned in the U.S. and other countries. Today more forest exist in Alabama than in 1900.

15 Forest Biomes Taiga (Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest)
Location- around 50 N

16 Forest Biomes Taiga Precipitation- around 50 cm per year
Temperature- Warm summers and cold harsh winters Growing season- 50 days to 6 months Soil- poor quality- very acidic

17 Forest Biomes Taiga Species diversity- Low Species Diversity
Insects, mammals, birds Plants dominated by conifers Threats- Acid rain, disease, and logging Low species diversity allows disease to decimate a forest.

18 Grasslands Savanna Location- near equator

19 Grasslands Savannas Precipitation- 50 – 125 cm per year
Wet and dry season Temperature C Growing season- during the wet season Soil- Rich in moist areas and poor in very dry regions

20 Grasslands Savanna Species Diversity- relatively diverse (less than rain and deciduous forest) Plant adaptations- runners, vertical leaves, thorns, drop leaves during the dry season Insects, mammals, birds Large migratory grazing herbivores are dominant on the landscape.

21 Grasslands Temperate Grassland Location- around 30 N & S latitude
American Prairie, Russian Steppes, Veldt of South Africa, and Pampas of South America

22 Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Precipitation- 25-75 cm per year
Temperature- Hot summers and cold winters Growing season- During the warm summer months (latitude will determine the length of summer) Soil- Rich Soil

23 Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Species Diversity- moderately diverse
Plants- dense sod forming grasses or bunch grasses Grasses survive frequent fire Animals- Insects, mammals, birds, reptiles Large migratory grazing animals Burrowing mammals

24 Grasslands Temperate Grassland

25 Grasslands Chaparral- Temperate woodland with scattered tree communities. Location- Temperate zone near coastal areas

26 Grasslands Chaparral Precipitation- around 30-35 cm per year
Dry summers and wet winters Temperature- warm summers and mild winters Growing season- year around Soil- poor

27 Grasslands Chaparral Species Diversity Threats- Plants- Animals
low-lying, evergreen shrubs and trees Leathery leaves retain water Adapted to fire Animals camouflage Threats- Human development

28 Desert High Desert Hot Desert Location- 30- 60 N & S latitude

29 Desert

30 Desert Desert Precipitation- less than 25 cm per year
Temperature- varies (hot days/cold nights) Growing season- shortly after rain Soil- poor (very little humus)

31 Desert Species Diversity- Very Low Plant adaptations
Succulents- thick, fleshy stems and leaves that hold water. Shallow spreading root system Short quick growth cycle when rain is available Animal adaptations Thick scaly skin holds water Estivating- burrowing during the hottest part of the day Nocturnal Reptiles, Mammals, Birds, insects Threats- species loss, the amount of desert is increasing word wide.

32 Tundra Location Northern polar regions (above 60 N latitude)

33 Tundra Precipitation- Less that 25 cm per year (snow)
Temperature- long cold harsh winters and short mild summers Growing season- summer (4 months or less) Soil- Poor (permafrost)

34 Tundra Species Diversity- very low Plant adaptations
Low growing Shallow roots systems Quick reproductive cycle Animal adaptations Migrate or burrow during winter Mammals, birds (summer), insects (summer) Threats Habitat loss and pollution

35 Tundra

36 Tundra

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