2 EVERY MARK COUNTS June 2012 A* A B C D E Unit 3 49/72 43/72 37 32 27 2268%60%44%31%16.314.310.77.3Unit 460/8354/834842363072%65%51%36%
3 AO1 mark scheme Mark Knowledge and Understanding Range of relevant materialBreadth and depthOrganisation and structure8-7Sound, accurate and well-detailedSelectedSubstantialCoherent6-5Reasonable, generally accurate and reasonably detailedEvidence of breadth and/or depthReasonably coherent4-3Basic, relatively superficialRestrictedBasic2-1Rudimentary, muddled and/or inaccurateBrief or largely irrelevantLackingNo creditworthy material
5 Lacking detail Reasonably detailed One psychologist wrote about social learning theory. He suggested that people learn by watching others and getting rewards. You can see this in his study with Bobo where the children who watched an adult hitting Bobo were more likely to be aggressive.Lacking detailReasonably detailedBandura (1963) wrote about social learning theory. He suggested that people learn through observational learning and getting vicarious reinforcement. You can see this in his study with Bobo where the children who watched a model hitting Bobo were more likely to imitate the aggressive behaviour. In another study Bandura showed that imitation did not occur at such a high level if the model was punished.
6 To provide detailed answers … Include the fine detailsSpecify exactly what you meanUse psychological termsUse examplesCite named studiesSqueeze that sponge
7 2 Range of relevant material 8 marks AO1About 10 minutes of writing (20 minutes for AO2).About words of writing.10 points of words for each possible essay.For each point remember one KEYWORD.
8 For example Social learning theory 8 marks AO1 Bandura (1963) BiologicalObservationOperant conditioningVicarious reinforcementExpectancies of future outcomeModellingDirect reinforcementSelf-efficacy
9 Why it works A prècis is a summary where one cuts out less important material leaving the key bits.golden nuggets.Produces a précis of text.Gives you the coat pegs.Ensures you learn just the right amount (not too much or too little).
10 Let’s try itMaintenance: Social exchange theory (Thibaut and Kelley, 1959)SPECIFICATIONTheories of the formation, maintenance and breakdown of romantic relationships: for example, reward/need satisfaction, social exchange theory
11 Approach 1 Six ELABORATED critical points would get you a Grade A. 8 x 25 words = 200 words8 x 50 words = 400 wordsAO112345678AO212345678
12 Approach 2 A2 Exam Companion 50 words x 12 = 600 words An alternative psychological explanation is that stressful life events cause the onset of schizophrenia. Events such as the death of a close relative act as a trigger. The individual may have a biological predisposition for schizophrenia but only some people with such a predisposition will develop the disorder – those who experience stressors.52 wordsIn general the biological explanations probably have better research support than psychological ones. There is a large body of evidence, for example, supporting the role of genetic factors such as the research by Gottesman (1991) which showed that the greater the degree of genetic relatedness, the greater the risk of schizophrenia.51 wordsA2 Exam Companion
13 Depth & breadth Describe studies relating to ….(8 marks) 6 studies in little detail (lack of depth).Needs to be balancedDescribe studies relating to ….(8 marks)Describe explanations3 or 4 studies in an appropriate amount of detail.2 studies in lots of detail (lack of breadth).
14 The 1 ½ theory rule Student has Theory 1 Wherever the specification says ‘theories’ or explanations this means you have to cover two, BUT …Student has Theory 18 marks description16 marks evaluationStudent produces cut down Theory 15 marks description10 marks evaluationTheory 23 marks description6 marks evaluationDescribe and evaluate one theory of … (24 marks)Describe and evaluate two theories of … (24 marks)
16 A well structured answer Why?Communicates competenceDoesn’t requirean introductiondefinitionsa conclusionJust answer the question, not ‘I am going to write …’What does it require?A clear plan, rather than a rambling account.Logical flow.Focus on the actual question.AO1 and AO2 clear for examiner and for youAO1 Theory 1AO2 supportAO2 challengeAO1 Theory 2General AO2AO1 Study 1AO2AO1 Study 2AO1 Study 3AO1 Study 4
17 Paragraphs Tired examiner Each AO2 point in one paragraph – so you can see the elaboration.Organisation countsLine of argument counts Tired examiner
21 Marking exerciseOutline and evaluate psychological explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting. (24 marks) There are many different types of dieting, the definition ‘restricting oneself to smaller amounts of certain kinds of foods’. The restraint theory was developed to investigate the causes and consequences of dieting. The theory suggests that for some individuals dieting can be successful with weight loss as a result of undereating. On the other had, it can also be unsuccessful resulting in overeating and weight gain. There are many different pressures for individuals to lose weight such as family, social class, peer groups, ethnicity and the media. The media plays a big role as to why some people feel the need to lose weight. There is a certain level of individuals observing and imitating celebrities. This is because of positive reinforcement which comes from fame and money and punishment is seen through bad publicity. Therefore there is more attraction for the individual to be like celebrities and ‘skinny’.
22 Outline and evaluate psychological explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting. (24 marks)There are three main categories which are effective in losing weight these being calorie control diets, behavioural therapy and healthy eating. There are different types of dieting available such as surgery, drugs, external monitoring (such as keeping food diaries) and low calorie diets. Wilenbring et al (1986) carried out a laboratory study on humans which they found that research participants ate less during periods of stress. This study is easy to apply to the target population as it was carried out on humans. There is also ease of replication, however it lacks mundane realism because it was carried out in a laboratory. Many studies have been carried out as to the successfulness of dieting. Rodin (1977) found that central to dieting success was individuals’ belief about the cause of their obesity and their motivation for change. Kiernan (1998) carried out a study which found that people who were most dissatisfied with their bodies prior to dieting were more likely to succeed in their dieting attempts. Ogden and Hills interviewed people who had successfully lost weight and maintained weight loss. It was found that a life event such as a milestone, illness or divorce had an effect on their eating style. Therefore research shows that it is four main factors that help increase the successfulness of dieting, this being motivation, individual belief, dissatisfaction with their body and life events.
23 Outline and evaluate psychological explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting. (24 marks)Dieting is not always successful and can often fail . Davey suggested that stress is directly related to overeating. This suggestion is subjective as individual differences are not taken into account. A dramatic restriction on calorie intake over a short period of time is ineffective, therefore people who diet by just reducing their calorie intake are not actually successful in their dieting. Research has suggested that a reason for why diets fail can be due to a negative mood , dieters tend to overeat in response to their low mood. Another reason for why diets fail could be due to the fact that today there is greater availability of food choices, combining this with an evolutionary tendency to store fat has contributed to weight gain. External eaters will eat for other reasons rather than just when they are hungry, restrained eaters are careful about their diets and watch the calorie intake therefore when put under stress could eat a lot more and emotional eaters eat what they want and when they want depending on their mood. These are all examples of diets failing, it is due to vulnerability.
24 Outline and evaluate psychological explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting. (24 marks)Studies have been carried out on unsuccessful diets and assess the reasons why. Herman and Mack (1975) took a sample of dieters and non dieters. They were then given a high or low calorie pre-load and then a high calorie load. It was found that the dieters who ate high calories in the preload stage continue to eat in the loading stage, whereas non-dieters continued to binge because they were psychologically hungry. Therefore the study suggests that dieting can lead to overeating and excess calorie intake. Although the study had ease of replication , the study had low ecological validity and mundane realism as it is unlikely that individuals would be put in a situation like this in real life. Another study was carried out by Wardle and Beales (1988) to investigate whether dieting results in overeating. They randomly assigned 27 obese women to a group, either a diet group, exercise group or a control group. It was found that the participants in the diet group ate more. They concluded that attempting to diet can increase the desire to overeat. Due to small samples of 27 women it is hard to generalise as it was found that 70% of women diet in a lifestyle words
25 Marking exerciseDiscuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships. (8 marks + 16 marks) The continuity hypothesis suggests that an individual’s relationship with their primary caregiver provides foundation for adult relationships by creating an internal working model (IWM). The IWM influences a person’s expectation of later relationships thus affects his attitudes towards them. Adult relationships are likely to reflect early attachment style. This is because the experience a person has with their caregiver in childhood would lead to the expectation of the same experiences in later relationships. This is illustrated in Hazan and Shaver’s love quiz experiment. They conducted a study to collect information of participants’ early attachment styles and their attitudes towards loving relationships. They found that those who were securely attached as infants tended to have happy lasting relationships. On the other hand, insecurely attached people found adult relationships more difficult, tended to divorce and believed love was rare. This supports the idea that childhood experiences have significant impact on people’s attitude toward later relationships.
26 Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships. (8 marks + 16 marks)However, the association made by Hazan and Shaver might not be reliable because of the use of a questionnaire . Although this method can provide quantitative and qualitative data participants might answer in a biased way to be more socially desirable, which is called social desirability bias. Moreover, the data might be retrospective since participants had to recall experience from early childhood which can be inaccurate thus reducing the reliability of the findings. Another methodological flaw of this study is the sample bias . The questionnaire was posted in an American newspaper and people volunteered to answer. This can raise the problem of individual differences, for example people who volunteer tend to be more socially outgoing or have more free time. Therefore the finding cannot be applied to the whole population due to low generalisability. There is difficulty in investigating the role of childhood experiences in adult relationships due to the concerns of stability of attachment styles. Securely attached children can become insecurely attached due to life events. This suggests that the influence of early childhood on later relationships can be varied.
27 Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships. (8 marks + 16 marks)This theory is accused of being reductionist because it assumes that people who are insecurely attached as infants would have poor quality relationships. This is not always the case. Researchers found plenty of people having happy relationships despite having insecure attachments. Therefore the theory might be an oversimplification. Nevertheless supporting evidence comes from Simpson who did a longitudinal study on participants from their early childhood to their twenties. They found that securely attached children tend to grow up to be more socially competent and develop secure friendships and have happy relationships. Peer relationships in this period also have an important influence on how people approach adult relationships. Children develop a sense of their own values and others based on specific experiences which then become internalised and affect the way they behave in adult relationships. Nangle supports this by highlighting the importance of having a friend to trust which creates a sense of being loved and understood. These characteristics are important in adult relationships. There are gender differences in the early friendship with peers. Boys tend to have more competitive friendships while girls are more cooperative and sharing activities. This suggests that the influence of early childhood peers interaction can be different for males and females. However Erwin argues that sex differences have been over emphasised and many similarities have been overlooked.
28 Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships. (8 marks + 16 marks)Adolescence is a critical period marked by the increasing importance of friendship and the emergence of romantic relationships. Social learning theory suggests that parents can transfer their idea about opposite sex to their children by the process of modelling. Gray reported how adolescents who were raised in caring warm families are better prepared for adult relationships. Friendships at this stage are more important because friends provide a secure base for independent exploration to the adult world. Romantic relationships in this period allow individuals to develop physical and emotional intimacy which then affects adolescence and attitudes to adult relationships. Marsden claims that although romantic relationships have positive benefit, too much dating can have negative consequences. This is supported by Neuman who concluded that romantic dating in teenagers is linked to low academic achievement and antisocial behaviour. One criticism for this is cultural bias , if the social context affects adolescent’s dating then the studies which are based on small sample size cannot be applied universally. 718 words
29 BEST AO1 advice LESS is sometimes MORE Don’t try to stuff too much in! Description is generally easier and often students know a lot about the theories/studies.Remember the marks are restricted for AO1.Detail is as important as breadth.Be brutal in sticking to a 10 minute limit (do all AO1 first?).LESSissometimesMORE
30 BEST AO2 advice Top and bottom your paragraphs. Top AO2 and IDA paragraphs.Lead-in sentences‘One study that supported this …’‘There are limitations to this approach, for example …’.‘However …’‘An alternative approach is …’‘The implications of this theory are …’.BottomFinish every AO2 paragraph by answering the ‘so what’ question, e.g. ‘This suggests that …’.Link the critical point back to the AO1 point you are criticising.