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Essay Writing in Psychology The 18 mark question

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1 Essay Writing in Psychology The 18 mark question

2 AO1 Knowledge and understanding of psychological theories terminology, concepts, studies and methods and communication of these in a clear and effective manner. Total of 18 out of 30 marks on the paper Question a) and b) and one third of c)

3 AO1 terms Describe: give a detailed account of the study/theory in clear and concise English Outline: give a less detailed account of the study/theory in clear and concise English Explain/Define: give a clear and concise meaning of the term specified

4 AO1: Mark Scheme 6Accurate and reasonable description that demonstrates relevant knowledge and understanding. 5-4Less detailed but generally accurate description that demonstrates relevant knowledge and/or understanding 3-2Basic description that demonstrates some relevant knowledge and/or understanding 1-0Very brief/flawed or inappropriate description that demonstrates little knowledge or understanding

5 AO2 Analysis and evaluation of psychological theories, concepts, studies and methods and communication of these in a clear and effective manner Total of 12 out of 30 marks Two thirds of question c)

6 AO2 terms Evaluate Assess Analyse To what extent Discuss and critically consider are AO1 and AO2 terms

7 18 marks essay Outline and evaluate… Give a brief account of and evaluate… To what extent does research support… Consider the view that… Always involves describing and evaluating

8 18 Mark Essay 6 marks AO1 12 marks AO2 AO1 is assessed on accuracy and detail AO2 is assessed on –commentary –Effective use of material –Analysis and evaluation –Range of issues used

9 AO2: what does it mean? Both positive and negative –Methodological –Participants –Ethical issues –Validity- internal and external –Application to real life –Supporting/refuting research –Historical bias

10 AO2 Mark Scheme 12- 10 effective use of material informed commentary. Effective analysis and evaluation. Broad range of issues and/or evidence in reasonable depth, or a narrower range in greater depth. The structure is generally clear and coherent. 9-7 appropriate selection of material but this is not always used effectively to produce a reasonable commentary. Reasonable analysis and evaluation of material. A range of issues and/or evidence in limited depth, or a narrower range in greater depth. 6-4 The selection and use of material provides only a basic commentary. Basic analysis and evaluation of material. Superficial consideration of a restricted range of issues and/or evidence. 3-0 The selection and use of material provides only a rudimentary commentary, or commentary is absent or wholly irrelevant. Analysis and evaluation just discernible or absent.

11 AO2: how is it marked? COMMENT: present an interpretation of a theory or finding CRITICISE: draw attention to the strengths or weaknesses of a study/theory EVALUATE: present an overall conclusion about the value of a study/theory

12 FLAGS This suggests that… However, … Therefore, … On the other hand… In contrast… One advantage of this view is… This study was flawed because… Support is shown by… A useful application of this is… Not everyone reacts in the same way, for example… There may be cultural variations…

13 AO2: boost those marks Make it effective by ensuring: a)It is relevant b) It is a justified point c) It is explained (elaborated upon)

14 How do I do this? The golden rules: 1.Identify your evaluation point (This study lacks ecological validity…) 2.Justify your point (… because it was a lab experiment and attempts to replicate it in other situations have been unsuccessful) 3.Elaborate upon it (Therefore, the results of this study cannot be generalised beyond the research situation)

15 Planning your answer Mark a minute Don’t write an introduction or conclusion unless it will get you extra marks It can be useful to work backwards with some essays- know how you want to conclude and structure your answer from there Your essay does not have to be balanced (its just good practice!) Beware of your own opinion!! It must be backed with psychology

16 Work in 3s AO1: 6 mins; AO2: 6 mins; AO2: 6 mins Plan in boxes: AO1 AO2 AO1 AO2 AO1 AO2

17 Describe and evaluate research into stress and the immune system AO1Aims Procedure and Findings or key study: Kiecolt-Glaser AO2 posit ive *Conclusion of key study *Supported by Kiecolt-Glaser who found that T-cell activity were higher in students before exam and lower during them, suggesting that stress reduces the immune system functioning. *In turn supported by Riley and Cohen * Such research has important implications AO2 neg ative * However, K-C studies had biased sample. *K-C study also didn't match pps accurately *Evan’s study suggests it is more complex- sigA increase during acute stress and decreased during chronic stress. Actually support GAS

18 Critically consider explanations of forgetting in LTM AO1Trace decay theory AO2 + *supported by Lashley because… AO2 -Refuted by Jenkins and Dallenbach because…However, study is flawed by major confounding variable of… Also refuted by Baddeley and Hitch because… Fact we have VLTMs Impossible to distinguish between trace decay and interference AO1Interference theory AO1 +Supported by both J&D and B&H above because… Also supported by Tulving and Pstoka because… AO2 -Many studies lab studies so… T&P particularly artificial because… T&P actually found that effects would disappear with cued recall so interference may just mask memory. Supports theory of retrieval failure and cue-dependent forgetting

19 To what extent can anorexia nervosa be explained by biological factors. AO 1 Description of biological causes of anorexia: Genetics, biochemistry, neuroanatomy AO 2 + Supported by research- Holland et al; Fichter and Park. Scientific research increasingly suggests a biological element If biological then explains why resistant to treatment Beneficial to be biological as can lead to treatments AO 2 - *However, research flawed- Holland could be due to enviro suggesting not just biological cause. CR not 100% so must be other factors involved. Samples small so fail to take individual diffs into account- bio doesn’t apply to all *bio cant explain aspects such as increase, mainly females, mainly western- not adequate explanation on own * cause or effect- if not causal then must be another explanation * Doesn’t take any psychological factor into account (learning, childhood, thought process etc) which have all been found to have an role to play. Bio on own does not explain anorexia, best to take diathesis-stress approach

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