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Nutrition and Health surveys/nutrition monitoring; Epidemiology

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1 Nutrition and Health surveys/nutrition monitoring; Epidemiology
Chapters 5 & 7

2 Practice of Epidemiology
Initially used to investigate, control, and prevent epidemics of infectious disease Epidemiologists work with other health professionals to identify causes of disease to propose strategies for controlling or preventing health problems Can be used to describe a community’s health problems and to determine whether health is improving or getting worse Surveillance methods have been used to monitor preventable causes of birth defects

3 Epidemiology “the study of the __________ and ___________ of health-related states and events in specified populations and the application of this study to control of health problems”

4 Study—Epidemiology is the basic science of public health
Study—Epidemiology is the basic science of public health. It's a highly quantitative discipline based on principles of statistics and research methodologies. Distribution—Epidemiologists study the distribution of frequencies and patterns of health events within groups in a population. To do this, they use descriptive epidemiology, which characterizes health events in terms of time, place, and person. Determinants—Epidemiologists also attempt to search for causes or factors that are associated with increased risk or probability of disease. This type of epidemiology, where we move from questions of "who," "what," "where," and "when" and start trying to answer "how" and "why," is referred to as analytical epidemiology. Health-related states—Although infectious diseases were clearly the focus of much of the early epidemiological work, this is no longer true. Epidemiology as it is practiced today is applied to the whole spectrum of health-related events, which includes chronic disease, environmental problems, behavioral problems, and injuries in addition to infectious disease. Populations—One of the most important distinguishing characteristics of epidemiology is that it deals with groups of people rather than with individual patients. Control—Finally, although epidemiology can be used simply as an analytical tool for studying diseases and their determinants, it serves a more active role. Epidemiological data steers public health decision making and aids in developing and evaluating interventions to control and prevent health problems. This is the primary function of applied, or field, epidemiology.

5 Basic Concepts Risk “likelihood that people who are without a disease, but exposed to certain risk factors, will acquire the disease at some point in their lives” Risk factors may be found in the physical environment or social environment, or they may be inherited. Other risk factors may be behavioral, such as smoking.

6 Relative risk “Measure of how much a particular risk factor influences the risk of a specified outcome”- to identify differences in disease rates between exposed and unexposed groups Relative Risk = Rate of condition among exposed divided by rate of condition among unexposed

7 Incidence “the proportion of group initially free of a disease that develops the disease over a period of time”

8 Prevalence “the proportion of a group possessing a disease at a specific time”


10 Epidemiological Method
Hypothesis testing Identify a cause-effect comparison to be tested Explaining research observations Bias Chance Truth

11 Types of Epidemiologic Studies
Ecological or Correlational Studies Compare the frequency of events in different populations with the per capita consumption of certain dietary factors. Dietary data collected in this type of study are usually disappearance data, which are the figures for food produced for human consumption minus the food that is exported, fed to animals, wasted, or otherwise not available for human consumption. Cross-sectional or Prevalence Studies Examine the relationships among dietary intake, diseases, and other variables as they exist in populations at a particular time.

12 Types of Epidemiologic Studies
Cohort Studies A group of people, called a cohort, free from the disease is identified and examined, and then followed for months or even years Group members are examined periodically to determine which individuals develop the characteristics of interest and which do not. - _____________ - look back in time to reconstruct exposures and health outcomes, or - _____________ - those that follow a group into the future.

13 Types of Epidemiologic Studies
Case-Control Studies A group of persons with the disease is compared with a group of persons without the disease to compare characteristics, such as previous exposure to a factor, between cases and controls. Controlled Trials The most rigorous evaluation of a dietary hypothesis is the randomized controlled trial conducted as a double-blind experiment.

14 Nutritional epidemiology
The epidemiologic method lends itself to the study of the relationship of diet to health and disease. The method can also be used to: Describe the nutrition status of populations or specific subgroups of a population develop specific programs or services for members of the group whose nutrition status appears to be compromised. Evaluate nutrition interventions.

15 National nutrition policy
- a set of nationwide guidelines that specify how the nutritional needs of the population will be met. - there is no one federal body or agency with its sole mandate to establish, implement, and evaluate national nutrition policy. U.S. national nutrition policy Food assistance programs. National nutrition and health objectives. Regulations to safeguard the food supply and ensure safe handling of food. Dietary guidance systems. Monitoring and surveillance programs. Food labeling legislation.

16 National Nutrition Policy
Does the U.S. have a national nutrition policy?

17 Why monitor nations health and nutritional status?
Nations monitor health and nutrition status - to decide how to allocate scarce resources, - to enhance the quality of life, - to improve productivity. Nutrition monitoring is a term that includes: Nutrition assessment Nutrition monitoring Nutrition surveillance Nutrition screening

18 Background on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States
The U.S. government has been involved in tracking certain elements of the food supply and food consumption for more than 8 decades. The first USDA Household Food Consumption Survey The nation’s first comprehensive survey (Ten-State Nutrition Survey) conducted between 1968 and 1970. In 1990 Congress passed legislation that established the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program (NNMRRP). It includes more than 50 surveillance activities that monitor and evaluate the health and nutritional status of the U.S. population.

19 Types of data __________ data: relate directly to the population served; often collected by the acting agency itself focus groups, local surveys __________ data: relate to already existing data in either published or unpublished form NNMRR data

20 National Nutrition Monitoring System
NNMRRP = National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program

21 National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program (NNMRRP)
Established by Congress in 1990 Implementation and coordination of activities by USDA and DHHS Monitoring data are used to assess the dietary, nutritional, and related health status of the population More than 50 surveillance systems are operative

22 NNMRRP Goals Collect, analyze, and disseminate data…
Establish _________ data and uniform standards Provide data to evaluate proposed ______ changes

23 NNMRRP Goals Provide scientific foundation for improving nutritional status and quality of food supply Identify high risk groups to aid program planning

24 National Nutrition Monitoring System
Federally mandated collection and analysis of data on: national food supply food composition food and nutrient consumption consumer knowledge, attitudes, behaviors nutritional/health status

25 National Food Supply U.S. Food Supply Series
Quantities available per capita of: food kcals available nutrients USDA

26 Food Composition USDA Nutrient Data Base Used for: survey analysis
research individual use

27 Food & Nutrient Consumption
Ten State Survey Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) USDA Fruits & Veggies — More Matters(5 A Day for Better Health) NCI…

28 Food and Nutrient Consumption
“What We Eat in America Survey” Dietary interview component of NHANES Individuals in households, one sample with all levels of income, another of low-income households One-day and 3-day food intakes of individuals (1-day recall, 2-day record) Times of eating occasions Sources of food eaten away from home

29 Food and Nutrient Consumption
Total Diet Study (TDS) Eight age groups, infant through elderly Assesses for nutrients and contaminants in foods Estimates levels of 11 essential minerals Collects and analyzes 234 foods from retail markets in urban areas

30 KAB Assessments Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
annually since 1984 designed to examine trends over time. States can readily address urgent and emerging health issues. BRFSS questions focus on: Not getting enough physical activity Eating a high-fat, low-fiber diet Using tobacco and alcohol Not getting medical care that is known to save lives - e.g. mammograms, Pap smears, colorectal cancer screening, and flu shots - Food frequencies for dietary fat, fruit, and vegetable consumption Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS)

31 Nutrition and Health Status
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES I, II, III) “What we eat in America” (integration of NHANES & CSFII) Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) DHHS Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) CDC

32 Nutritional Status and Nutrition-Related Health Measurements
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Series Representative sample of civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2 months and older Dietary intake (one 24-hour recall) Body composition Biochemical analyses of blood and urine Bone density Dietary and health behaviors Collects data at household, family, and individual level

33 Food Composition and Nutrient Data Base
National Nutrient Data Bank (established in 1892) – updated on a regular basis Nutrient content of foods Published tables of food composition Computerized databases

34 Food Composition and Nutrient Data Base
USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference (initiated in 1980) – produced from National Nutrient Data Bank Includes data on food energy, 28 food components, and 18 amino acids for about 5,200 food items Main source of data for USDA Survey Nutrient Data Base

35 Food Composition and Nutrient Data Base
USDA Survey Nutrient Data Base - updated continuously Used for analysis of nationwide dietary intake surveys Includes data on food energy and 28 food components for >7,100 food items

36 Uses of NMRR Data Assessment of dietary intake
Monitoring and Surveillance _________ Food programs and Guidance Scientific Research Historical ______

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