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Assessing the Nutritional Health of Populations. Some Definitions Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee, 1986 Expert Panel on Nutrition Monitoring,

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Presentation on theme: "Assessing the Nutritional Health of Populations. Some Definitions Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee, 1986 Expert Panel on Nutrition Monitoring,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessing the Nutritional Health of Populations

2 Some Definitions Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee, 1986 Expert Panel on Nutrition Monitoring, 1989

3 Dietary Status The condition of a population’s or an individual’s intake of foods and food components, especially nutrients.

4 Nutrition Assessment Measurement of indicators of dietary status and nutrition related health status to identify the possible occurrence, nature, and extent of impaired nutritional status.

5 Nutrition Monitoring Assessment of dietary or nutrition status at intermittent times with the aim of detecting changes in the dietary or nutritional status of a population

6 Nutrition Surveillance Continuous assessment of nutritional status for the purpose of detecting changes in trend or distribution in order to initiate corrective measures

7 Nutrition Monitoring in the United States

8 Brief Chronology


10 Goals of NNMS Provide foundations for improvement of nutritional status and quality and healthfulness of food supply Collect, analyze, and disseminate timely data on nutrition and dietary status, quality of food supply, food consumption patterns, consumer knowledge and attitudes

11 NNMS Goals, cont... ID high risk groups and geographic areas and trends Establish national baseline data and develop standards for monitoring Provide data for evaluating implications of changes in agricultural policy

12 Nutrition and Related Health Measurements National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (I-V, and continuous) National Health Interview Survey National Hospital Discharge Survey Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System

13 Food and Nutrient Composition Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals – now integrated into What We Eat in America

14 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Youth Risk Behavior Survey Diet and Health Knowledge Survey

15 Food Composition and Nutrient Data Bases National Nutrient Data Bank (NNDB)

16 Food Supply Determinations US Food and Nutrition Supply Series

17 Federal Assessment of Policies and Practices AgencyYears School Health Policies and Programs Study CDC, Division of Adolescent and School Health 1994, 2000, 2006 Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) CDC, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity 2007 Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Legislative Database CDC, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Annual since 2001

18 Major Surveys with Nutrition Content

19 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Annually since 1984 (not all states at first) Telephone interview Data collection is conducted separately by each State. Sample design uses State-level, random-digit- dialed probability samples of the adult (aged 18 years and over) population. State-specific sample sizes ranged from 1,499 to 6,005

20 BRFSS - Questions Behavioral risk factors (for example, alcohol and tobacco use), preventive health measures, HIV/AIDS, health status, limitation of activity, and health care access and utilization Core of questions asked in all States Standardized optional questions on selected topics administered at the State’s discretion Rotating core of questions asked every other year in all States State-added questions developed to address State- specific needs

21 BRFSS - Data National State Smaller units when local agencies pay for additional surveys Data system homepage:

22 BRFSS - Nutrition Self reported height and weight Trying to loose weight? 6 fruit and vegetable intake questions Activity Food security



25 The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) National, State, and Local Data

26 Purposes of the YRBSS Focus the nation on behaviors among youth causing the most important health problems Assess how risk behaviors change over time Provide comparable data

27 Behaviors That Contribute to the Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence Tobacco use Alcohol and other drug use Sexual behaviors Unhealthy dietary behaviors Inadequate physical activity

28 Policy and Program Applications Describe risk behaviors Create awareness Set program goals Develop programs and policies Support health-related legislation Seek funding

29 Characteristics of the National, State, and Local School-Based YRBS 9 th – 12th grade students Probability samples of schools and students Anonymous Self-administered, computer-scannable questionnaire or answer sheet Completed in one class period (45 minutes) Conducted biennially usually during the spring

30 Rising Rates of Childhood Overweight in Lewis County

31 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) CDC, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) In-person interview in household and mobile examination center stratified multistage probability sample, nationally representative of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population Approximately 5,000 people are examined at 15 locations each year All ages beginning in 1999

32 NHANES - Continuous Periodic (1960–94); annual beginning in 1999 after 1999 annual sample size too small to provide reliable estimates for many measures and for most subgroups. Most analyses require 3 years of data for reliable estimates.



35 NHANES – Sample Content Chronic disease prevalence and conditions (including undiagnosed conditions: anemia –diabetes –cardiovascular disease –osteoporosis –obesity full body DXA for body fat as well as bone density physical fitness Nutrition: –Food Security –Dietary supplements –Weight history –24 hour dietary recall

36 NHANES III Anthropometric Procedures Video Body weight Standing height Sitting height Upper leg length Recumbent length Upper arm length Knee height Arm circumference Waist circumference Buttocks circumference Thigh circumference Head circumference Skinfolds (including thighs, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac) Wrist breadth Elbow breadth

37 WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA: NHANES-CFSII Integration Staged integration of the two surveys 2001 a year of testing, 2002 full integration Goals: continuous data collection, linkage of diet and health data, 2 days of dietary data collection (second day by phone 3 to 10 days after initial exam) DHKS not part of integrated efforts at this time, but under consideration

38 What We Eat in America Food intake data can be linked to health status data from other NHANES components HHS is responsible for the sample design and data and USDA is responsible for the survey’s dietary data collection methodology, maintenance of the database used to code and process the data, and data review and processing

39 History of the Food Security Measurement Project 1990NMRR Act recommends a standardized mechanism for defining and obtaining data on the prevalence of food insecurity 1992USDA staff review existing research 1994USDA and DHHS sponsor conference on Food Security Measurement and Research 1995Current Population Survey of US Census Bureau includes Food Security Measurement scale 1996- present Annual Surveys, ERS assumes leadership, others encouraged to use FSMS 2006Release of IOM report, “Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States: An Assessment of the Measure.”

40 Sample of Other Population Surveillance Systems Breastfeeding: National Immunization Survey Growth in Low Income Children: Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System

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