Presentation on theme: "Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005 What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in IndiaDr.Vinod ShahPresented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005
2 Factors that affectedthe health “caring”Culture.
3 Women’s disempowered status I Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitionersHad to access low caste women traditional daisDais were illiterate women
4 The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre.
5 Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results
6 Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone)
7 TBA Donkey ride for pregnant women Massaging/kneading the abdomen Pulling on the cordCow dung as lubricantTook responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body
8 No “caring culture” Lepers were burnt or buried alive Sick in an “epidemic” were left to dieFemale children were sold to buy food during an epidemicMentally retarded, handicapped were chained to treesSick had no recourse to help
9 Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don’t think it is important.If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angry…my karma will be lost…
10 Did god role model healing? There is no such example of God role modeling healing
11 IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY & THE BODY SOUL DISSOCIATION-III THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXTThe Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one “whole”The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected
12 One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers
13 Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.
14 Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.
15 High and low trust societies SENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICSACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA.Author of book on Trust
16 THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT LOW TRUST SOCIETIESLESS WEALTH CREATIONSOLITARY WORSHIPLESS SPONTANEOUSSOCIALIBILITYFAMILY BUSINESS ONLYLESS SOCIAL CAPITAL
18 Subjective culture vs Objective Low O/S ratio-V We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity.When we deviate from the path of religion …the gods leave our side.This is why we fall sick.
19 Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures Changing standardsAbsolutesNon-shared standardsWidely shared standardsKings/Leaders above StandardsStandards above Kings/LeadersOral tradition; scripture not rooted in historyDocumentary tradition; rooted in history
20 Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because Interpret reality subjectivelyAccess knowledge subjectivelySubjective attitudes in justice and gender
21 Indian religions…In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them.WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development.Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture.
22 Family versus truth-VI A father and a husband is like a God
23 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 1 Finland 9,2 New Zealand 9,3 Denmark 9,Iceland 9,5 Singapore 9,6 Sweden 9,7 Switzerland 9,8 Norway 8,9 Australia 8,10 Netherlands 8,11 United Kingdom 8,12 Canada 8,13 Austria 8,Luxembourg 8,15 Germany 8,16 Hong Kong 8,
24 Family values & corruption Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics)Correlates well with the CPI.(Regression analysis)Tribalism- Africa and India
25 What did the Christian Medical missionaries do? Women’stransformationTransformation ofRitualistic Hinduism& JainismRoleModeling of careSustainabilityoftransformation
26 Women’s healthWomen medical missionaries ushered in “caring” for womenWomen in India did not access hospitalsOnly home visits allowed and that only by women doctors
27 Maharani’s locket Elizabeth Bielby-1880 Maharani of Panna Locket message toThe Queen“The women of IndiaSuffer greatly”
28 SOME POINEER WOMEN MEDICAL MISSIONARIES IN INDIA During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th CenturyName of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of workArrival1. Clara Swain American Methodist Mission Bareilly, UP.2. Sara Seward American Presbyterian Allahabad, UPMission3. Seeyle Women’s Missionary Calcutta, WB Society of America4. Sarah Norriss American Board of Medical Women5. Rose Greenfield Society for female Educationin the east, UK Ludhiana, Punjab6. Elizebeth Bielby Zenana Bible and Medical MissionUK Lucknow, UP
29 Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival7. Ms Hewlett England Zenana Mission Punjab8. Ellen Mitchell American Baptist Board Burma9. Fanny Butler Church of England Jabalpur, Mp.10. Ida Faye American Baptist Mission Nellore, AP.11. Anna Kugler Lutheran Mission, US Guntur, AP.12. Elizabeth Beatty United Church of CanadianMission Indore, MP.13. Mana White United Presbyterian Churchof America Siakot, (Jammu Border)14. Jessie Carelton American Presbyterian Board Ambala, Punjab.15. MatildaMachphail Free Church of Scotland Madras, TN16. Ottoman Baptist Missionary Society Ganjam, Orissa
30 Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival17. Edith Brown Society for Female Educationin the East, UK Ludhiana, Punjab18. Alene Calkins American Friends Mission Chhatrapur, UP.19. Pearl Chute Canadian Baptist Mission Akkividu, AP.20. Ida S Scudder Arcot American Mission Vellore, TN.21. Gertude Hulet Canadian Baptist Mission Vuyyuru, AP.22. Charlotte Pring Godavari Delta Mission Narsapur, AP.23. Catherine ? American Methodist Episc.Board Jagadalpur, MP.24. Annie Mackay Free Church of Scotland Lakhnadon, MP.25. KatherineLehmann ? Renigunta, AP.
31 Ida ScudderNot a medical college but the kingdom of God(1918)
32 Catherine-Methodist church- redefined access One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled byShip for 6 months to BombayTo Raipur by train for a weekHorse by several days to access the mission station called BastarMethodist hospital built in 1892.Largest Methodist congregation in India
33 Transformation of women The highest number of women doctors in the worldIndia is a huge “nurse factory”% of all nurses were Christian!All traceable to the women’s medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries
34 Ancient India did not have a culture of “care” By a “caring culture” I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitalsReligion was divorced from “loving your neighbor”No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2nd century BCArya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged
35 In what was a caring “void” Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of careThe first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards..Orphanages…home for widows…Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitalsPrograms for epidemic care
36 Social work in India…The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity …that kind of this did not exist in India for a very long time.Now the social work being done in India…those going out to help and serve others is all because of missionary & global influences.
37 By 1940 AD…. There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitalsTB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian
38 Dr. Alexander Duff 1806-78 Pioneer missionary educationist English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian societyScripture education introduced but made optional“Downward filter theory”-working with High castesSchools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay
39 Christians ushered in a culture of “care” Started many NGO’s that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succorRole modeled caringTaught “caring”
40 Welfare-Social capital did not exist The only safety net for the poor wasThe joint familyIndividual philanthropy andThe caste system
41 The concept of the voluntary sector…. Indian culture did not have this concept of “volunteerism”“Activism” for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change)
42 The concept of the ”voluntary” sector….. Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983)This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGO’s)Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished.
43 As a result …1825 onwardsMany Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schoolsStarted social reform organizations for the purpose of “caring”Care of widows & remarriageCare of orphans & preventing child marriage
44 The many champions of “caring” Some were ChristiansSome liked “Christian” values but were not ChristiansMost were provoked by the Christian gospel to “care” but remained Hindus
45 Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833) founder of “Brahmo Samaj” A Hindu reformer and visionary,Roy is considered by manyas the father of modern India.Oil Painting by Atul BoseRaja Ram drew inspiration fromWilliam Carey“The first feminist”
46 Rishi Dayanand Saraswati 1824-83 Founded Arya SamajSpoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugationAssassinated in 1883 AD
47 The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good; that is to promote physical, social &spiritual goodfor everyone
48 Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875 Educated in “The Scottish mission school”Became a great educationistStarted “caring”institutions
49 Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar From he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in 1856.
50 As a result Indian religions were challenged to reform Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism
51 Indian reformer Vivekananda 1863-1902 Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement!Studied in Presidency college-CalcuttaLater in Scottish church college studied English literature and western logic which brought into sharp focus the short comings of Indian societyWas influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy also.
52 VivekanandaHe elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamanant)Established Ramakrishna mission which began caring
53 Ramakrishna mission was a reformist reaction to the Christian “caring” CalcuttaRamakrishna M. Institute of CultureAdvaitaAdvaita Ashram CalcuttaSRMSri Ramakrishna Math CalcuttaNarendrapurRamakrishna Mission College UdbodhanMother's HouseVidyapithRamakrishna VidyapithNew DelhiRamakrishna MissionRajkot/GujaratRamakrishna Mission AshramChennaiRamakrishna Math Mylapore ChennaiRamakrishna Mission AshramItanagarRamakrishna Mission Hospital APVidyapithRamakrishna Vidyapith ChennaiChengalpattuRamakrishna Mission Tamil NaduMaduraiRamakrishna Math CoimbatoreRamakrishna Mission Vidyalaya
54 Ramakrishna mission locale BangaloreVivekananda AshramKochiRamakrishna Math, KeralaRanchiRamakrishna MissionKaladiRamakrishna Advaita Ashram KeralaPuneRamakrishna Math and MissionHydrabadRamakrishna MathVaranasiRamakrishna M.- Home of Service RKMRamakrishna VidyashalaKayamkulamSri Ramakrishna Ashram, KeralaJharkhandTB Sanatorium - RanchiMangaloreRamakrishna Mission Ashram
55 Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda wrote in one of his letters : A hundred thousand men and women, will go over the length and breadth of the land, preaching the Gospel of salvation, the Gospel of help, the Gospel of social raising-up -- the Gospel of equality.
56 Karsondas MuljiSocial Reformer, Educationist, Writer, PamphleteerWhile in Elphinstone college…. influenced by missionary John WilsonThe Primitive Religion of the Hindus and the Present Heterodox Opinions in his journal led to the famous Maharaja LibelWidow remarriage-helped many
57 Micheal Madusudandas English and Bengali writer AD- became a ChristianBoth ‘The Captive Lady’ and ‘Visions of the Past’ were written under the pen name Timothy.Editor of “The Hindu Patriot”. He composed Bengali plays such as ‘Sharmistha’, ‘Ekey Bole Savyata’, ‘Buro Shaliker Ghare Ro’, ‘Krishnakumari’ and ‘Padmabati’.In most of his plays, he criticized the lack of “caring” present in the society.
58 Dadabhai Naoroji 1824-1917 Grand Old Man of India Studied in Elphinstone college-influenced by Dr WilsonWent from door to door recruiting girl studentsFreedom fighter-concernedfor womenMember of the house of commons
59 Initially Jains were into hospitals for birds and animals only Jain Bird hospital in Old DelhiGaushalas are “old age homes” for cows
60 Jains now have many hospitals Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, Cardiac hospital in Matunga are all Jain.Surat Mahavir hospital is JainAhmedabad Vadilal Sarabhai hospital is Jain.Sri AmarJain hospital- JaipurBhagwan MahavirJain Hospital-Bangalore
61 In personal conversation with Jains We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the missionaries..Now Jains go abroad and raise money from the US and the UK for their hospitals and projects
62 Emergence of Gandhian NGO’s From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGO’s were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran Sangh was started at the behest of Gandhi.“Shame on us…why should missionaries… (Gandhi)
63 Mushrooming of NGO’s…Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGO’sThough not all the NGO’s are into welfare more than 100,000 NGO’s are into some form of caring
64 Ripple effect Other caring NGO’s Non-Xian hospitals Advocacy Doctors & NursesMan power formission
65 Disaster 1947 onwards.. 700 Protestant hospitals in India Many Indian trained D & NNo visionary leaders!!400 Xian hospitals closed in 40 years
66 Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people Paradigm shiftMissionary failure- Developed programs but not people1RUNNING PROGRAMSPEOPLE BUILDING2Programs produces visible quick impactHarder and longer process involving several years3Anyone with skill can run programsRequires rapport with people and will not happen unless you are a authentic human being4Requires lot of capital for infrastructure specially in the healing ministryDoes not require large capital for infrastructure5Not sustainable after the pioneer has retiredLong term – very sustainable & greater impact6All about performing tasks or a taskAll about creating a visionary
67 Programme Development to People Development - 2 Paradigm shiftProgramme Development to People Development - 2Jesus – “Follow me and I will make you fishers of men”.Development of people more strategic than programs.Budgets do not reflect this – more used for programs.Learning from history – Disaster in India
68 Medical Missions - Custodians of the Culture of Care 3 Types of CaringCommercial caringProfessional caringChristian caring
69 Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon IndiaWestChristian caringProfessionalCommercialChristian CaringCommercialProfessionalEither way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon