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Arts and Crafts Movement

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Presentation on theme: "Arts and Crafts Movement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Arts and Crafts Movement 1900-1939
LAUREN: Read slide By Chelsea, Lauren, Kirsten, and Carly

2 Setting the scene: Rapid social, economic, technological, civic, and cultural change Industrialization – rise of machines and impersonal factory work LAUREN: Read slide

3 Setting the scene: 1900-1939 Hull House (1900) Labor Museum
Jane Addams LAUREN: Hull house labor museum opened in 1900 by jane addams wanted youth to know the amount of work that goes into manufactured goods and the complex nature of machine also had classes that thought crafts

4 Setting the Scene: WWI ( ) LAUREN: Read slide

5 Setting the Scene: Economic instability: The Great Depression begins in 1929 LAUREN: Read slide

6 Scientific View vs. Holistic View
Scientific view of person and physiology of disease vs. holistic view of person (mind-body unity) e.g. X-Rays began to be used in medicine CHELSEA: Read Slide Medical Field focusing just on biological factors of disease [ x-ray: just look inside] Treat condition rather than the person On the other hand, field of thought to treat person as a whole [OT]

7 Getting back to a simpler time
John Ruskin mid-19th century British university professor Believed that machines and factory work limited human happiness Advocated a return to simpler times CHELSEA: -One of the first to advocate anti-industrialization, emphasis on the simple, hand-made rather than complex manufacturing - More satisfying and happy -

8 The ‘Work Cure’ Dr. Herbert J. Hall, Adolf Meyer, and William Rush Dunton searched for ways to humanize the care of chronically ill patients Promoted the “work cure” rather than the “rest cure” Championed “sheltered workshops” where people earned a living by making authentic objects. The goal was to give spiritual support and to help employ people with mental and physical disabilities. CHELSEA: Read slide - Medical treatment for disorders suggested physical activity like hiking and hunting – dress and culture of women did not allow this so treatment for them consisted of bed rest- workshops was treatment for both sexes

9 Arts-and-Crafts Societies
Arts and Crafts Movement spread from Great Britain to the U.S. with the help of furniture-maker and craftsman Gustav Stickley. The U.S. was accepting of this movement because upper classes desired unique, authentic objects, whereas they criticized mass produced items and idleness. Arts-and-Crafts Societies CHELSEA: Read slide

10 Arts-and-Crafts Societies
Handicraft clubs and arts-and-crafts societies began popping up around the U.S. e.g. Boston Society of Arts and Crafts (1901) Herbert James Hall ran a workshop in Marblehead, Massachusetts. He “called his institution a ‘school of handicrafts,’ where patients became ‘artisans,’ tasting ‘the wholesomeness of a life of labor without the hardships and trials [of] the real industrial world” (Quiroga, 1995, p. 93). Chelsea: Read slide Herbert J. Hall: Identified as a near-founder of occupational therapy, created many concepts practiced in the profession today He said “ the handicrafts combine mild mental effort with simple physical processes, they require the hand and eye to follow the impulses of the mind, and so begin to reestablish the fundamentals of successful living

11 Arts-and-Crafts Project
Paper weaving How can you see this being beneficial as part of occupational therapy? KIRSTEN: Introduce craft Allow only few minutes Ask discussion question

12 Before WWI Clinics were created for patients with chronic physical illness e.g. Consolation House The goal of OT was to return clients to a state of financial independence e.g. Arequipa Sanatorium – clients were encouraged to earn their keep by making pottery OT had a vocational focus. This paved the way for programs which would treat wounded soldiers and sailors returning from WWI. KIRSTEN: Read slide

13 During WWI Society felt it was their social and moral responsibility to rehabilitate soldiers WWI forced field of OT to clarify its role and standardize training and practice KIRSTEN: Read slide

14 During WWI OT was a means to keep soldiers on the front.
In a lecture given at a meeting of MAOT in 1921, Joel Goldwait, an orthopedic surgeon, said: “These war experiences showed us what was obvious before, that idleness is a dangerous thing. Every maimed soldier was likely to become a centre of social unrest and no nation can stand that. There were numerous cases of wounds in the hand. Three or four months were lost by these during ordinary medical treatments; with occupational therapy available, the time was brought down to as many weeks, and the men returned to the front. This is entirely possible in civil life” (Quiroga, 1995, p. 145). KIRSTEN: Read slide

15 After WWI There were six people in attendance at the first meeting for the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy in 1917 300 people attended the society’s third meeting in 1919 This demonstrates the development of OT as a field during WWI. KIRSTEN: Read slide

16 Women’s Changing Roles
Women gained the right to vote in 1920 Elizabeth Upham started the first OT program at Milwaukee Downer College While women who were nurses were under the supervision of male physicians, women in the field of OT had the opportunity to be independent. CARLY: Read slide

17 Occupational Therapy Schools
Some argued: eye, hand, mind, and creative imagination are stimulated by arts and crafts As a result, occupational therapy schools began to offer courses in occupations such as needlework, weaving, metalwork, bookbinding, and leatherwork. The missions and philosophies of occupational therapy and the arts-and-crafts movement were so intertwined over time that it became difficult to distinguish between the two. Susan E. Tracy CARLY: Read slide - In 1906 Susan E tracy began ot classes in training schools at adams nevine asylum, in 1910 wrote the 1st ot textbook

18 The Impact of the Arts-and-Crafts Movement
Economic issues led to the demise of sheltered workshops and arts-and-crafts societies However, the ideals behind the arts-and-crafts movement remain. Some argue that occupational therapists’ use of arts- and-crafts has decreased in recent years. CARLY: Read slide Remimbursment and insurance became an issue for the arts and crafts Ideals remain- using occupations/activities as therapy rather than just excersizes

19 The Impact of the Arts-and-Crafts Movement
The use of arts-and-crafts in therapy can be useful: As a means of self expression For increasing self-esteem and motivation To assist learning processes How can we incorporate arts- and-crafts into practice? CARLY: Read slide Ask question

20 References Levine, R. (1987). The influence of the arts-and-crafts movement on the professional status of occupational therapy. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41, Quiroga, V. (1995). Occupational Therapy: The First 30 Years: to Bethesda, MD: The American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc. Reed, K. (1986). Tools of practice: heritage or baggage?: Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lecture. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 40, Thompson, M. (1998). Creative arts in occupational therapy: Ancient history or contemporary practise? Occupational Therapy International, 5, CARLY: Our resources

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