Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION"— Presentation transcript:
1 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION
2 - Sponsorship- Media- Social and cultural aspects- Influences of local and national providers.
3 SponsorshipSponsorship exists to give good publicity to the sponsors. It can fund teams, sports or individuals in part or full. The more famous the sport, team or individual, the higher the sponsor.There are many different types of sponsorship:Free transportFree accommodationScholarshipsFree equipmentFree clothes and shoesEvent and league paid forFree entrance fee, food, training
4 Sponsors get a great deal out of sponsorship too Free advertising – see David Beckham wearing adidas football boots, and you will want a pairImage – Samsung will become associated with winningScholarships – some universities offer places to students who excel in certain sport. In return, universities gain prestige for sporting excellenceTax and hospitality – sponsors don’t usually have to pay tax on the money they spend on sponsorship. They also get free tickets to the event they are sponsoring, which they can use to impress clients or employees
5 POSITIVEPays for full time sportspeople to train and competePays for events and leagues to compete inPromotes the development of up and coming sportspeopleNEGATIVENot everyone can get sponsorship, especially if you play an unpopular sportIf you get injured, lose your form or get a bad reputation, sponsors could withdrawAbuse of power by associating alcohol and cigarettes with sport. This gives a false image of health
6 Media Sport is everywhere! TV and radio Cable and satellite – pay-per-view eventsCeefax and teletextInternetNewspapers and magazinesBooks and filmsMobile technologyMedia coverage depends a lot on technology. Apart from making the above forms possible, it also improves things with instant replays, photo finishes, underwater cameras, split times and timings.
7 POSITIVE EFFECTSMONEY – media companies pay for the rights to show a sport. Sponsorship will increase massively if that sport is popularised by the mediaEDUCATION – people learn about rules and tactics for a sportROLE MODELS – young people aspire to be like theseINSPIRATION – brings sports to people who may not otherwise experience it, which can encourage participationAID TO COACHING – lets you study the performance of othersNEGATIVE EFFECTSBIAS – only the really popular sports get much coverage, so smaller sports don’t get much sponsorshipLACK OF ATTENDANCE – watching it on TV means you re not at the game, which reduces ticket sales.OVERLOAD – some think there is too much sport on TVOPEN SEASON – stars are hounded by the mediaDEMANDS TO COMPLY – media impose rules on sports to make them more exciting. Golden goal in football, tie breaks in tennis
8 Social and Cultural Aspects SPORTING BEHAVIOUREtiquette – the unwritten rulesIn sport this means fair play and good mannersFootballers often kick the ball out of play if an opponent is injured so they can be treated. At the throw in, the opposition give the ball back to the other team.At the end of a tennis match, players shake their opponent’s and umpire’s hand.ViolenceThis is rare in non-contact sports, as there is no direct aggressionFights do break out in aggressive team sports, such as rugbySome people say violence among players causes spectator violence, but this is not been proved either wayIf a player has behaved in a violent manner, they can be fined or suspended, and their club may be fined.
9 SPECTATORSCrowds can influence a match by cheering on their team and putting off the opposition. This is a reason why playing at home is an advantageThey buy tickets and other merchandise, which brings money into the clubHowever, there can be a downside to fansFacilities are needed, and stewards have to be there to supervise themThe police may be needed to control large numbers of fans, and the clubs have to pay for thisHooliganism can be a problemHooliganism has caused disasters, so action has been taken:Heysel Disaster – in 1985, at the European Cup Final, 39 Juventus fans were killed =when Liverpool fans rushed towards them, making a wall collapse.Hillsborough Disaster – at the 1989 FA Cup semi-final, 96 fans were crushed to death against fences around the pitch, after too many people had been let into the stadium.The Taylor Report made the following recommendationsStadiums had to have fences separating opposing fansStadiums had to become all-seaterClub membership schemes were introduced to stop known trouble makers entering the groundsPerimeter fences between the crowds and the pitch were removedCCTV was installed to monitor fans
10 AMATEURSDon’t get paidTake part because the enjoy itHockey is a sport that is totally amateurClubs have to pay for the hire of facilitiesPlayers of the clubs pay membership feesSome clubs get sponsorship from small local businessesPROFESSIONALSGet paid for playingTheir full time jobTV and radio pay massive amounts for the rights to show the eventThey sell merchandiseSponsorship
11 Influences of Local and National Providers LOCAL SPORTS CLUBSA general structure of a sports club committee, which is elected by the club members
12 SPORTING FACILITIESOutdoor facilitiesInclude pitches (football, hockey, cricket), tracks (athletics, horse racing), pools (water sports), courts (tennis, netball) and natural features (canoeing)Indoor facilitiesUsually purpose built buildings, such as swimming pools, sports halls, gyms (used for lots of different activities, like football, badminton, tennis)When you plan to build an indoor facility, there are many things needed to be taken into consideration:Are people going to use it?Can people park there?Can it be used for other things?Can people get to it?What will it cost?Is there any competition?
13 Public Sector Facilities Owned by local authorities and councilsUsually run at a lossSports pitches, leisure centres, swimming poolsPrivate Sector FacilitiesOwned by companies or individualsRun to make moneySports stadiums, tennis clubs, golf clubs, health clubsCentres of ExcellenceOffer very good facilities for top class athletesCrystal PalaceBisham AbbeyLilleshallHolme PierrepointPlas-y-Brenin
14 SPORTING BODIES AND ORGANISATIONS National Governing Bodies of sport have 4 main roles:To maintain the rules of the sport and keep the disciplineTo promote the sportTo organise international competitive eventsTo organise national competitionsExamples of governing bodies are the FA (Football Association), UKA (UK Athletics)SPORT ENGLANDAims to:Give the UK’s world class performers excellent supportImprove the UK’s profile and influence on the international stagePromote ethical behaviourPersuade governing bodies that the UK is the best place to hold major sporting events