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The Progressive Era Lecture 1 Groups Representing Workers.

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1 The Progressive Era Lecture 1 Groups Representing Workers

2 Administrative Exam Reminder –Next quiz Feb 27 –Mid-term March 19 Reading for Next Time –Also have look at web pages on the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and on the IWW Essay Reminder – March 12

3 Review Nature of the new craft unionism – pure and simple unionism Origins and Founding of the American Federation of Labor – voluntarism The world of workers, 1880-1900

4 Today I- The Winds of Reform II- Leading Groups Representing Worker Interests

5 I. Winds of Reform National Efforts to control trusts and railroads Currency reform Efforts to reduce tariffs

6 The Muckrakers Lincoln Steffens exposed corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government Ida Tarbell published a devastating expose' of Standard Oil Co. Thomas Lawson exposed practices of stock speculators David Phillips in 1906 charged 75 of the 90 U.S. Senators represented railroad and trust interests rather than the people Upton Sinclair exposed the meat industry

7 Impact Lowered public esteem for business Increased public and political support for regulation of business including regulation of the work place Increased public and political support for worker organizations, i.e. unions

8 Impact – Labor Protective Legislation LaFollette Seamens Act - 1915 Owens-Keating Act - 1916 Adamson Act -1916

9 II. Leading Groups Representing Worker Interests The American Federation of Labor The Socialist Party The Industrial Workers of the World

10 American Federation of Labor No business group was more politically conservative Continued to support craft unionism and voluntarism Supported the war effort and worked with the Wilson Administration

11 The Socialist Party Many Socialist Groups Socialist Labor Party –Daniel DeLeon –Marxist Socialist Party –Eugene V. Debs –Believed in achieving power through the ballot box

12 Socialist Party Didnt have much use for exclusive craft unionism Advocated industrial style unionism

13 The Industrial Workers of the World: The Wobblies Founded in Chicago in 1905 Soon broke apart into factions Plenty of charismatic and able leaders to go around Included Debs, DeLeon, and Big Bill Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners

14 IWW Philosophy Various factions ranged from mildly liberal to extreme left Direct Action – economic and industrial action to eliminate capitalism Syndicalism – One Big Union

15 IWW Never terribly large membership Most successful at organizing low skilled workers whose work isolated them from the mainstream of society Even branch established in Australia

16 Demise of the IWW The only worker group to actively oppose the war Imperial Wilhelms Warriors In context of war-time chauvinism, IWW members frequently attacked and beaten and often jailed Many states passed anti-syndicalism laws Tactics like industrial unionism and sit- down strikes foreshadowed the 1930s

17 Next Time Injunctions Worker Health and Safety: The Triangle Shirt Waist Fire Legislative changes Workers during WWI

18 The Progressive Era Lecture 2 Triangle Shirt Waist Fire and Injunctions and Workers in World War I

19 Administrative Essay Reminder Exam Reminder – quiz next class Hand out Definitions

20 Review Impact of the muckrakers and the atmosphere of reform Groups seeking to represent the interests of workers –American Federation of Labor –The Socialist Party –The Industrial Workers of the World

21 Today I.Impact of Radicalism II.The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and Worker Health and Safety III.Development of the Labor Injunction IV.The Clayton Anti-Trust Act V.Workers During the War

22 I. Impact of Radicalism Much that we take for granted now was the work of socialists, syndicalists, anarchists and marxists in an earlier time period Many people fought, devoted their lives and died for these concepts

23 I. Un-American Socialist Policies espoused by Debs Abolition of child labor Right of women to vote Progressive income tax Employer liability laws National department of education Pensions for both men and women

24 II. The Triangle Shirt Waist Fire and Worker Health and Safety March 25, 1911 Where was the factory? Worst industrial fire in U.S. history, 146 young women died Why? What changes did the government make afterward?

25 III. Development of the Labor Injunction Why issue an injunction? In principle, the idea is to preserve the status quo and thus not to prejudice claims of either party while merits of case heard

26 Development of the Labor Injunction First used in the 1880s First use by federal court was in the Pullman Strike of 1894 Became the dominant employer tool in strike situations

27 Use of the Labor Injunction Many courts issued them on an almost automatic basis Ex parte In Re Debs, the Supreme Court held that courts could enjoin strikes to prevent irreparable damage to the employers expectation of future profits

28 Use of the Labor Injunction Frequently issued to prevent inducement to breach of contract Many state courts held closed shop illegal objective and enjoined strikes in support of it on grounds workers had no direct interest in it Similarly Secondary Activities frequently held illegal and enjoined

29 IV. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act Attempt to limit application of anti trust to unions and limit use of injunctions in labor disputes Provisions –Labor not a commodity or article of commerce perhaps intended to imply that control of labor market not restraint of trade –Anti trust policy cannot prevent unions from lawfully carrying out their legitimate functions

30 IV. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act Duplex v. Deering S.C. 1921 The Law of Duplex –Injunctions can still be issued routinely by courts in labor disputes –Anti trust can still be applied to routine union activities

31 V. Workers During the War A.F.L. and mainstream of labor movement completely loyal to the war effort Established National War Labor Board A.F.L. won de facto recognition from the government

32 Workers During the War Socialist Party condemned the war Party attacked under the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act Its publications were banned from the mail Leaders indicted including Debs

33 Workers During the War Growing number of women joined the union movement Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe also joined unions in record numbers African-Americans typically still not welcome, even in the north

34 Next Time Quiz Labor Protective Legislation Begin Movie

35 The Progressive Era Lecture 3 Protective Legislation

36 Administrative Reading for next topic

37 Review Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Development of Labor Injunctions Injunctions and Anti-trust Policy Workers during the war

38 Today I.Immediate Post-war Period II.Sacco Vanzetti Trial - film

39 I. Immediate Post-war Period 1919 Strike wave of unprecedented proportions in period of Red Scare Post Russian Revolution hysteria Setting of the strike wave in this period molded public attitudes even though A.F.L. was easily as Anti Communist as the National Association of Manufacturers

40 Immediate Post-War Period Growing interest among workers in political action Growth of labor parties in many states In 1919 split in Socialist Party that eventually produced the Communist Party Palmer raids on radical groups Movie on Sacco and Vanzetti trial

41 1919 Boston Police Strike Caused when police commissioner fired officers for union activity Argued unionism incompatible with loyalty required of police officers Strike broken by Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge –Called Massachusetts Guard –Strikers fired –Replaced by returning soldiers who received higher pay, more holidays and free uniforms

42 Employer Views Continued to oppose unionism In war period, Western Union fired 800 employees for union activity After the war, employers launched a new anti-union offensive

43 Next Time Finish film

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