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E. A SIA & SE A SIA. J APAN B ECOMES AN E CONOMIC S UPERPOWER The end of WW2 meant Japan had to rebuild Recovery and Economic Miracle The Occupation –

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Presentation on theme: "E. A SIA & SE A SIA. J APAN B ECOMES AN E CONOMIC S UPERPOWER The end of WW2 meant Japan had to rebuild Recovery and Economic Miracle The Occupation –"— Presentation transcript:


2 J APAN B ECOMES AN E CONOMIC S UPERPOWER The end of WW2 meant Japan had to rebuild Recovery and Economic Miracle The Occupation – 2 goals (end militarism, ensure a democratic government) Japans Armed Forces disbanded & trials held to punish leaders 1946 – a new constitution set up democracy and provided Japan with a military only for self-defense Emperor lost all political power Basic rights protected by constitution and Diet (or parliament) Zaibatsu were weakened, but still used to help rebuild Japan 1952 – treaty ending occupation (bases & protection by US) Economic Success GDP soared as Japans economy recovered and thrived Products exported became Japans main economic plan 1970s –Japan became leader in cars, electronics (high tech) Competed with US/West Highly educated, skilled workforce Workers saved, banks loaned money for further expansion

3 J APAN S BECOMES AN ECONOMIC SUPERPOWER Trade and Investment Japan reliant on trade (few resources) Used to manufacture goods for export As Japans wealth used to invest in foreign ventures Japans PROTECTIONIST POLICIES angered trading partners Tariffs and regulations limited foreign imports A TRADE DEFICIT for most countries dealing with Japan US claimed trade barriers deprived other nations of fair trade and threatened to raise tariffs or reduce trade

4 J APAN B ECOMES AN E CONOMIC S UPERPOWER Global Interdependence both helped and hurt Japan Economic and Political Interaction Dependence on Oil OPECs price hikes really hurt Japan in the 70s Japan sought to improve relations with OPEC nations in Middle East Invested in alternative power (nuclear) and public transportation (to decrease reliance on oil) Japan and Its Neighbors Japan was slow to apologize for atrocities of WW2 Neighbors still angry about how Japan had treated them during war By 1980s, Japan was a major investor in economies of China, South Korea and other nations in the region, linking them economically 1990s – Japan FINALLY apologizes to various countries International Politics Supported west in military alliances Recently, Japan has tried to increase aid to nations in need Japan is an economic power, some believe they need to arm themselves and become more of military influence as well

5 J APAN B ECOMES AN E CONOMIC S UPERPOWER Changing Patterns of Life Economic Crisis in the 90s caused Japan to make cuts Many workers lost security of life long guaranteed jobs ( loyalty to co.) Political Stresses- Dominated by LDP party (coalition govt) Corruption weakened party, many younger broke away Crowded Cities Expensive city living, scarce space (tiny cramped apartments) Earthquake zone – higher cost to build buildings, infrastructure Kobe, Tohoku earthquakes Women Economic equality, but social traditions keep them subordinate Society doesnt allow them to lead country or companies Work Ethic Traditionally, family sacrificed for work, security Money saved to ensure strength of family Younger generation wants to enjoy their lives more& want benefits of prosperous society Older generation worries that work ethic is failing

6 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA After WW2, the civil war between Mao (communist) and Jiang (nationalist) resumed. Mao wins and Jiangs people flee to Taiwan and set up government there Communists Control of China (1949 revolution – MAO) Reasons for Victory Mao won support of the people of China (huge peasant population) Communists pledged to redistribute land and wealth, improve their lives Most hoped Communists would end foreign domination and build a new and better China Reorganizing the Economy Set out to turn China into a modern society from a backwards one Nationalized all business (to build socialism and repair economy) 5 year plans created to develop agriculture and industry Soviets helped them, at first Land redistributed, COLLECTIVES created to increase efficiency

7 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA Remolding Society One party totalitarian state Communist ideology replace Confucian and traditional religions Workers honored, the elite were vilified (attacked, beaten, imprisoned) Government attacked crime and corruption Schools opened, language simplified to make it easier to learn Politics mixed with education – propaganda Health care improved for rural areas as aid workers sent out to aid peasants Changes for Women Women won equality, expected to work along side men State run nurseries were set up to care for children, weakening family bonds Women still responsible for home duties as well

8 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA Many reforms DID improve the lives of peasants, but at a very heavy cost Economic Disasters The Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward 1958 – Mao created program to increase agricultural output COMMUNES created to increase efficiency Several villages, thousands of acres in a commune Own school, factories, housing, dining halls Each commune had a quota to meet A dismal failure Low-quality, useless items produced Communes did not meet quotas, due to weather, low output Famine followed – up to 30 million died of starvation China will turn, eventually, to more moderate politics

9 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA The Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution 1966 – Mao launched Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Goal to purge bourgeois or nonrevolutionary tendencies Teens formed RED GUARDS using the Little Red Book Attacked all they claimed were counterrevolutionaries Targeted people in authority (party leaders, teacher, managers, writers, artists, etc) Schools and Factories closed, the economy slowed even more, unrest Mao had the Red Army restore order Red Guards sent to communes, undereducated & cut off from family, they became known as the lost generation

10 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA US continued to support Jiang/Taiwan China and the Cold War Relations With the United States US refused to recognize the new government of China US tried for years to isolate China 1971 – China gained entrance into the UN 1972 – US President Richard Nixon visited China and set up formal relations between the 2 great nations Split with the Soviet Union USSR and China uneasy allies USSR sent aid, expertise to China to help them modernize Leaders had VERY DIFFERENT ideas on major issues Mao – adapted Marxism to the Chinese conditions Stalin – disagreed with Maos interpretations USSR/China competed for influence among developing nations Border disputes increased tensions between the two 1960 USSR withdrew aid and advisors

11 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA Mao will die in 1976 Many saw his leadership as disastrous for China, others revered him as the Great Leader More moderate leaders will follow and bring China back to a world power Reform and Repression (new leader DENG) Economic Reforms 4 Modernizations (agriculture, industry, science and defense) Introduced economic reforms – private ownership, free market policies Agri – farmers given land, govt took % of crop, family could sell the rest Entrepreneurs allowed to open businesses Foreign capital welcomed (joint ventures, special enterprise zones) Improvements brought a higher standard of living for most Chinese Consumption and crime increased Inequality between rich/poor, city/rural increased

12 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA Tiananmen Square Massacre – May 1989 Chinese people were demanding political change as well In Beijing – students and workers occupied Tiananmen Square while the world press was in Beijing for a meeting between the Russian and Chinese leaders 100,000s protested, calling for democracy in front of the worlds cameras When the demonstrators refused to leave, the government sent in troops 1,000s were killed or wounded, Some were put to death The crackdown showed Chinas political leaders were still in control and were determined to stay there. Order was more important than political freedom


14 F ROM R EVOLUTION TO R EFORM IN C HINA Challenges Today By mid 90s –China became a world industrial power Population – growth posed problems for Chinas future Rapid growth threatened Chinas economic power (1.2 B by 2000) Chinas One Child Policy (rewards and penalties) Worked better in cities than rural (needed workers for farms) Tragic effect of female infanticide Economic and Political Issues New leader Jiang continued Dengs policies Inefficiencies couldnt be fixed without huge unemployment Inequalities between rich/poor & city/rural continued to grow Communist Ideology is weakening as desire for profit overshadows to continue socialist/communist programs Corruption in government and business also became problem Human Rights Issues To maintain monopoly on power, The Communist Party jailed critics Human rights abused brought protests from trading partners Prison labor, political dissent, tyranny in Tibet, repression of Falun Gong all create troubles for China China believes foreign nations have NO RIGHT to tell China how to treat its people and point out human rights abused of other nations

15 T HE A SIAN T IGERS Taiwan and Hong Kong (both have links to China but neither experienced Maos revolution) Taiwan (China still considers it part of China, but the people of Taiwan consider themselves independent) Ruled by China, then Japan, then China again Jiang set up a democratic China in 1949 Despite Jiangs autocratic rule, economically Taiwan boomed US immediately recognized and supported Taiwan Trade boomed as Taiwan excelled in heavy industry & textiles With economic success came more political freedoms and reforms Recently Beijing again is insisting that Taiwan is part of China

16 T HE A SIAN T IGERS Hong Kong (Britain gained control after Opium Wars) Became huge commerce/financial center for all of Asia Millions of Chinese refugees fled to Hong Kong Wealth from industries and banks helped Hong Kong modernize Financial ties with China even when China was cut off from the world Hong Kong could buy/sell with China, a market closed to rest of world 1997 – control of Hong Kong was returned to China Beijing allowed Hong Kong to continue as the financial center of Asia

17 T HE A SIAN T IGERS Singapore (City-State) – 200 sq miles – 2 million people British rule brings prosperity Many ethnic groups came to Singapore for jobs, biggest group Chinese Order and Prosperity 1959 – won independence from Great Britain 1 st leader (30 years autocracy) supported free market economy Attracted foreign investment with low labor costs, skilled workforce Government insisted on education for all (in English and Chinese) High tech industries, manufacturing and finance drove economy Standard of living grew for most in Singapore Ongoing Issues Limited freedoms (strict control of government) is an issue Governments view is that order is more important than individual freedoms Demand by youth for more freedoms is a constant challenge

18 S INGAPORE Ethnic tensions have also caused problems Chinese and Malay & Indian groups Economic problems of the region impact Singapore Singapore weathered crisises that really hurt other Asian nations The main reason is that they have a stable government Their government invests heavily in education A strong work ethic and low wages make it highly competitive

19 N EWS STORY FROM S INGAPORE (4-18-94) An American teenager sentenced to 6 strokes of a lash for vandalism made a final plea for mercy today, but there was no sign an exception to Singapores tough criminal laws would be made for him. Lawyers formally asked President Ong Teng Cheong to pardon Michael P. Fay. A decision is expected within days. The date of the flogging has not been scheduled. Fat, 18, of Kettering, Ohio, pleaded guilty last month to two counts of vandalism, two of mischief and one of possessing stolen property for spraying paint and tossing eggs on a car last October. But he said in a letter to his father that he had confessed only after a beating by the police.

20 T HE A SIAN T IGERS The Two Koreas : Japan annexed in 1910, lost control after WW2 USSR/US agreed to a temporary division of Korea, the North being communist, supported by USSR and the South being democratic being supported by the US The Korean War Both sides wanted to end division North Korean troops attacked South Korea to unify under communism The US called on the UN to intervene UN forces mainly US and SK troops UN forces pushed north nearing China China (Mao) sent in troops to help NK The Korean War turned into a stalemate. Finally both sides agreed to end the war in 1953 creating a permanent North and South Korea North Korea became a closed country under strict communist rule with aid from the USSR South Korea was based on a free market economy with aid from the US (ruled by dictators)

21 T HE T WO K OREAS South Korea SKs economy boomed in the 1990s Based on textiles & manufactured goods early on, SK moved into automobiles, heavy machinery and electronics Workers receive low wages, long hours which makes SK competitive Standard of living increased for most Educated youth pushed for democratic reforms and won North Korea (Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong-Un) Since 1953, the Kim family has ruled North Korea and kept it isolated Hardline communism enforced even when other reformed Propaganda used to convince NK people that their leaders were great and their system was awesome 1990s NK had to accept aid from the West/US to prevent mass starvation Despite misery and famine, the Kims have held onto control

22 T HE T WO K OREAS The Nuclear Issue The US tried for years to prevent NK from developing nuclear weapons Offered to trade oil and other assistance to stop them North Korea became a nuclear state in 2006 Has tested missiles capable of hitting South Korea and Japan Outlook for Unity Most Koreans would like to see Korea reunited Talks between the two countries have eased tensions but no movement on reunification

23 S OUTHEAST A SIA AND THE P ACIFIC R IM War in Vietnam and Cambodia After WW2, France tried to reassert control Rebel leader, Ho Chi Minh, led resistance before, during and after war Communist Minh was VERY popular with the Vietnamese people Vietnam Divided When France finally decided to leave, an international conference was called Vietnam was divided into communist north and democratic south Election set to allow Vietnamese people to choose which direction they should go Election cancelled by South (fearing loss, US fears of Domino Theory) American Involvement Ho Chi Minh and the North attacked the South to reunite US gets involved to protect democratic government Military Advisors sent to help SV Army 1964 – US begins actively bombing NV as USSR/China sent aid to NV

24 SE A SIA AND THE P ACIFIC R IM The Communist Victory When the US left the war, Vietnam was still a divided nation NV overtook SV 2 years later and Vietnam reunited under communism Despite American military superiority, NV outlasted the US Ho Chi Minh led Communist Vietnam Vietnam Today Communist victors imposed harsh rule on the south 10,000s fled (Boat People) Vietnam had to rebuild. Progress slow due to US embargo 1990s – Vietnam introduced some free market reforms and their economy began to grow US lifted its embargo and re-established trade with Vietnam, economy continued to grow Tragedy in Cambodia – Killing Fields The war spilt over into Cambodia After the US left, the Khmer Rouge took over and unleashed a reign of terror for about 10 years. Millions will die (about 1/3 of their population) as Pol Pot tried to return his country to an agrarian economy Eventually, Vietnam will overthrow the Pol Pot government and after Pots death, many leaders will be tried for CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

25 S OUTHEAST A SIA AND THE P ACIFIC R IM Challenges for the Philippines 1946 – Philippines granted independence from the US US continued to have economic and military influence over them Marcos elected president in 1965 promising reform but instead became a dictator, cracking down on the peoples freedoms 1990s – Marcos overthrown and a democracy established Economic growth followed, though many remained in poverty Rapid urbanization brought many problems A string of natural disasters tested the Filipino government. Many fled the country to the US for a chance at a better life Currently, struggling with Muslim Extremists

26 Developing Nations of SE Asia Indonesia 13,000 islands make up this country (complex ethnic/religious issues) Under military rule, economy boomed (exporting many products) Problems in the 1990s brought down their leader, Suharto Indonesia sunk back into poverty during the 90s Myanmar Ethnic tensions have plagued this nation (AKA Burma) Repressive military leaders have kept under strict control, denying their people their rights Just this year, Myanmar has agreed to a few reforms in exchange for American aid Regional Cooperation Demands for Political and Social freedoms have rocked the region in the past 10-20 years. Order and economic development are more important to some leaders than the rights of the people To work towards great economic and social stability, ASEAN (Assoc. of Southeast Asian Nations) works together

27 S OUTHEAST A SIA AND THE P ACIFIC R IM The Pacific Rim - All these counties are part of the vast region known as the PACIFIC RIM Has ALWAYS been a strategic region for trade Now unite as a huge market that lures investors (world and US) China (1.4 billion) India (1.2 billion) Indonesia (240 million) Very DIVERSE region (ethnic, religious, cultural) Technology had linked these regions together and with the rest of the world

28 E SSAYS – C HAPTER 21 1) Mao brought communist revolution to China. Explain the 2 great movements enacted under Mao. Great Leap Forward The Cultural Revolution 2) Japan became an economic powerhouse after WW2. Explain 3 different things Japan did to rebuild their economy after the war. 3) Pick 3 of the countries below and explain what/how they developed after WW2. Taiwan* The Two Koreas Hong Kong* Vietnam Singapore* Philippines

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