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Magruder Chapter 15 The Bureaucracy

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1 Magruder Chapter 15 The Bureaucracy
The Government At Work Magruder Chapter 15 The Bureaucracy

2 The Federal Bureaucracy

3 What is a Bureaucracy? Bureaucracy is based on the principles of hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formal rules A bureaucracy is a way of organizing people to do work

4 Major Elements Nearly all of the bureaucracy of the federal Government resides in the Executive Branch of government The Constitution gives little guidance about the structure of the federal bureaucracy

5 Major Elements The bureaucracy is made up of three major groups of administrative agencies: the Executive Office of the President; the 15 Cabinet Departments; and the Independent Agencies

6 The Name Game The term department is reserved for agencies of cabinet rank The term agency is used to refer to any governmental body or, more particularly, to a major unit headed by a single administrator of near-cabinet status. The term administration is used in a similar way

7 The Name Game The term commission is given to agencies charged with the regulation of business activities. Commissions are headed by varying numbers of top-ranking officers, or commissioners. The terms corporation and authority are used for agencies that have a board and a manager and that conduct business-like activities. These terms are not used consistently

8 Staff and Line Staff agencies are those agencies that serve in a support capacity by furnishing advice and assistance in the management of an organization Line agencies are those agencies that actually perform the tasks for which the organization exists

9 Executive Departments and Independent Agencies

10 The Cabinet The head of each department is known as the Secretary, except for the Justice Department which is headed by the Attorney General Department secretaries are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate Together, the department secretaries serve as the cabinet

11 What are Independent Agencies?
An independent agency operates outside of the 15 executive departments in the cabinet Four major reasons explain why these agencies exist outside of the cabinet department structure: Some agencies are independent because their functions did not fit well into any of the existing departments

12 What are Independent Agencies?
Some are independent to protect their officials from political pressures Office of Personnel Management Social Security Administration Federal Election Commission

13 What are Independent Agencies?
Some are independent to make them more responsive to interest-group pressures Some are independent because of their peculiar and sensitive nature of their functions

14 What are Independent Agencies?
There are three types of independent agencies: independent executive agencies; independent regulatory commissions; and government corporations

15 Independent Executive Agencies
Most of the independent agencies fall into this category They are organized under a single administrator and have subunits that operate on a regional basis

16 Independent Executive Agencies
Today, there about 150 Independent Regulatory Agencies Most are found on the list of agencies on page 383 in the Magruder textbook

17 Independent Executive Agencies
Includes most of the Independent Agencies Some are large, multi-million or even billion dollar budgets GSA, NASA, EPA Almost the same as the cabinet departments, just do not have cabinet status

18 Independent Executive Agencies
Others do important work just not as large Civil Rights Commission Peace Corps Federal Election Commission

19 Independent Executive Agencies
Others act far from the limelight American Battle Monuments Commission Citizen’s Stamp Advisory Committee

20 Independent Regulatory Commissions
These commissions are created to regulate important aspects of the nation’s economy The 10 independent regulatory commissions are largely not under the President’s control The members of the commissions are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate for long, staggered terms

21 Independent Regulatory Commissions
These commissions must be made up from both parties, and members cannot be removed for political reasons They have quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial powers Used to clarify the laws they must enforce Act as an arbitrator when questions arise

22 Independent Regulatory Commissions
These regulatory bodies possess all three powers – executive, legislative, and judicial – and are exceptions to the principle of separation of powers Congress has delegated some of its responsibilities to these agencies to carry out the role congress should have

23 Independent Regulatory Commissions
Two major regulatory commissions – the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Interstate Commerce Commission – have disappeared in recent years

24 Government Corporations
These corporations are within the executive branch, and they are under the control of the President Their top officers are appointed by the President with Senate confirmation; all of their employees are public officials

25 Government Corporations
Examples would be the FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Eximbank -- Export/Import Bank of the United States The US Postal Service National Railroad Passenger Corporation

26 Government Corporations
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Tennessee Valley Authority

27 Government Corporations
Some controversy exists as to whether government corporations are compatible with the democratic government’s requirement that all public agencies be accountable to the public

28 The Civil Service

29 Development of the Civil Service
The Beginnings – During the early years of the republic, Presidents tried to fill federal jobs with qualified persons who shared their political views The Spoils System – Andrew Jackson began the practice of giving government positions to the President’s political supporters

30 Development of the Civil Service
Jackson defended this policy by saying that any intelligent person can fill any public office Jackson also maintained that there should be rotation in office so that more people can serve in public office Long service in office, Jackson believed, would lead to tyranny and inefficiency

31 Development of the Civil Service
Finally, Jackson claimed that the people are entitled to have the party they elected to power in control of all government offices The Movement to Reform – Widespread corruption and the assassination of James Garfield led to the Civil Service Act, or Pendleton Act, in 1883

32 Development of the Civil Service
The Pendleton Act The Pendleton Act made merit the basis for hiring and promotion in federal jobs The act also required that the federal work force would consist of men and women from every State, with the number from each State bearing a close relationship to that State’s share of the total population

33 Development of the Civil Service
The Pendleton Act (con) Veterans received preferred ranking in federal hiring

34 Civil Service Today A second goal of civil service reform has been to ensure that the best available people are included in the federal work force Reorganization – President Carter succeeded in implementing reforms in the civil service system that were intended to make the system more efficient and responsive to merit

35 Federal Employees and Party Activists
The political activities of federal employees are subject to several limits Federal employees may not strike Classified federal employees may not be party activists, run for a partisan office, become officers in a political organization or delegates to a party convention, or raise funds for a political party or any of its candidates

36 Federal Employees and Party Activists
Pay and Benefits Issues – Minority groups and women are well represented in most federal agencies, but remain at lower-level jobs


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