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Executive Office of the President & the Federal Bureaucracy.

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Presentation on theme: "Executive Office of the President & the Federal Bureaucracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Executive Office of the President & the Federal Bureaucracy

2 Quick Recap… How many branches are there in US government? Who has “power” in each branch? Which branch has the most power? Which branch is the largest?

3 Executive Office of the President (EOP) Established in 1939, the EOP has grown rapidly because… -Presidents add new agencies to it -Presidents want experts nearby to advise them about issues -Located throughout DC area

4 Executive Office of the President (EOP) Office of Management and Budget [OMB] - the largest EOP agency - prepares the national budget that the President sends to Congress each year National Security Council [NSC] - advises the President on security matters - helps coordinate the nation’s military and foreign policy - Situation RoomSituation Room Council of Economic Advisors - helps the President formulate the nation’s economic policy


6 Executive Office of the President The White House Office: - staff performs whatever duties are need by the President - gathers information and provides advice on key issues - ensures that Executive Departments and Agencies carry out directives from the President - present the President’s views to the outside world Chief of Staff Denis McDonough Press Secretary John Earnest

7 The Federal Bureaucracy

8 The Roots of Bureaucracy  Foreign Affairs (State), War (Defense), Treasury first departments  Growth in early 1800s with Post Office  Patronage and the spoils system become common  Civil War spawns another expansion  Pendleton Act is beginning of civil service system -Also known as merit system  Creation of independent regulatory commissions

9 Twentieth-Century Bureaucracy  Growing number of cabinet departments  Need for a larger government to support warsNeed for a larger government to support wars  New Deal and Great Society

10 Growth of the Bureaucracy 

11 Modern Bureaucracy  More than 2.7 million employeesMore than 2.7 million employees  Most (90%) are selected based on merit  Also have high-level appointees  Wide variety of skills represented  Less diverse than American population  Scattered throughout D.C. and regional officesregional offices  Growth of outside contractors

12 Civilian Employment  September 2009 Graphic Presentation of Federal Civilian Employment Distribution of Federal Civilian Employment by Branch Executive Branch (98%) - 2,773,878 Judicial Branch (1.0%) - 33,754 Legislative Branch (1.0%) - 30,859

13 The Federal Bureaucracy TODAY The New Deal DOUBLED the size of the federal work force, and continued to expand during the Cold War years (once created, agencies rarely go away) Currently close to 3 million people work for the federal government 2,200 presidential appointments (jobs are often obtained through patronage) 15 executive departments, headed by presidential appointees 180 independent agencies, boards, and commissions whose heads are presidential appointees Examples: EPA Environmental Protection Agency NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration CIA Central Intelligence Agency USAID U.S. Agency for International Development The Peace Corps The are a number of government corporations directly serving the public Examples: FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation USPS United States Postal Service TVA Tennessee Valley Administration

14 Formal Organization  Cabinet departments handle broad, lasting issues  Headed by secretaries  Government corporations act like businesses  Independent executive agencies handle services -Narrower than Cabinet department, independent  Designed to be free from partisan pressure

15 Agency Accountability  Often unclear who agencies should be accountable to  Civil servants are not directly accountable to American people  Presidents try to make the right appointments  Can also shape policy through executive orders  Congress can use oversight powers and funding  Police patrol v. fire alarm oversight  Judiciary can review regulations

16 Federal Bureaucracy PROSCONS

17 How the Bureaucracy Works  Congress creates agencies  Main job is implementation of laws  Policy made in iron triangles or issue networksiron triangles  Increasing use of interagency councils

18 An Iron Triangle 

19 The Influence of Client Groups Federal agencies have “client groups” that try to influence decisions The close cooperation between congressional committees, client groups, and a federal agency or department is referred to as… “IRON TRIANGLES” Congressional committees Ex: Armed Services Committee Interest Group or Organization The American Legion Executive Department Ex: Dept of Veterans’ Affairs

20 How the Bureaucracy Influences Public Policy Carries out policy decisions made by the President and Congress Often determines what the law means by the rules and regulations it issues Shapes public policy by helping Congress draft new laws or by providing ideas for new legislation Supplies advice and information to top decision-makers


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