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Presentation on theme: "CITRIS sponsored WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER 2013"— Presentation transcript:

UC Davis Mechanical Engineering Alex Beckerman, Kevin Quach, Nick Raymond, Tom Rumble, Teresa Yeh

2 Contents Introduction Technical Review Construction Next Stage
An overview of the CITRIS Renewable Energy Grant proposal, and project’s scope Preliminary Design and Research Technical Review Terminology and main features of our WEC design. Subsystems Buoy Spar PTO Hydraulics Electronics Heave Plate Construction A comparison of the two hydraulic motors regarding power performance, efficiency, and cost. Next Stage Testing in Bodega Bay Instruction Manual

3 Project Introduction

4 CITRIS introduction 2012 CITRIS Sustainability Competition Winners
$10,000 Renewable Energy Research Grant (+ $5,400 funding for testing) Complete project within one year from award

5 Objectives introduction
1. Design and fabricate a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) 2. Use standard parts and components to build the PTO 3. Create a set of instructions and share information over website

6 Preliminary Designs and Research

7 Preliminary design & Research
Potential Test Site: Bodega Bay, Ca Exposed to Pacific ocean waves and wind swell Local university facility to assist with deployment Steep ocean floor topography (bathymerty) Close proximity to UC Davis Team has personal knowledge of area Image:

8 Preliminary design & Research
Bodega Bay Marine Lab Source:

9 Preliminary design & Research
Significant Wave Height NOAA Buoy 46013 NOAA provides ocean data for last 28 years Buoy anchored 14 miles off shore Dominant wave period remains constant Wave height expected to increase closer to shore Dominant Wave Period KEY

10 Preliminary design & Research
Bond graph Modeling Transfers system from mechanical translational domain to the electrical domain Determines hydraulic damping coefficient for given electrical resistance Damping coefficient used in state space dynamic modeling

11 Preliminary design & Research
State Space Modeling Model to represent the dynamics of our physical system in ocean Linear wave model: approximation of ocean waves as sinusoids. [1] Equations developed within state space using a free body diagram. The system is modeled as a two body system with individual forces acting on each body. MatLab Simulation for Different Heave plate sizes used in Iteration Process Free Body Diagram of Buoy- Heave Plate Dynamics

12 Preliminary design and research
[ WEC_001] [ WEC_002 ] [ WEC_003 ]

13 Technical Background

14 PTO Buoy Spar Have Plate [ WEC_004 ]
Technical background PTO Buoy Spar 47.3 ft Have Plate [ WEC_004 ]


16 Buoy

17 buoy Preliminary testing of foam
Fabricated one cubic foot mold out of plywood and wood screws Filled mold with two part expanding polyurethane foam Results From Initial Foam Test

18 Buoy Lining the mold with plastic to assist with releasing the foam from the mold Positioning the PVC pipes

19 Buoy Marine grade polyurethane foam
Mixture come in two parts, expands when mixed Final volume is 15 times the original volume after 20 minutes of curing

20 Releasing the foam from the mold
Buoy Releasing the foam from the mold

21 The foam was cut with a chainsaw to form the 45°chamfer
Buoy The foam was cut with a chainsaw to form the 45°chamfer

22 The buoy was then sanded down and coated with a pigmented epoxy resin

23 Buoy Steel plates mounted on the upper and lower surfaces of the buoy
All thread compresses the plates and secures buoy to the spar


25 spar Hydraulic

26 spar

27 spar The bolt holes were drilled on the mill to assist in accurate alignment. Welded components into framework

28 spar Housing for springs and hydraulic shaft
Wire rope alignment housing

29 SPAR Addition of strut members

30 SPAR Strut members welded to the spar Secured to the buoy bottom plate

31 Spring alignment

32 Alignment brackets 5 spring alignment brackets to keep the 6 springs inline

33 Alignment brackets Bushing doubles as spring alignment and linear guide for hydraulic rod extension

34 Alignment brackets Cylinder alignment bracket


36 Power take-off system

37 Power take-off system Hydraulic Subsystem elements: Hydraulic Ram
Bladder Type Accumulator Piston Type Motor Standard hydraulic hoses and fittings System Operation: Direct drive Reverses direction with each stroke Accumulator displaces cylinder rod volume

38 Power take-off system Hydraulic Motor Drain Port By-pass: Check valves
Swagelok fittings Hydraulic subsystem waterproof housing

39 Power take-off system Power take-off systems conveniently contained within water proof boxes

40 Power take-off system Boxes mount to frame Frame mounts to top of buoy
Easy to access and maintain

41 Power take-off system Permanent Magnet DC Motor:
Operated mechanically to function as a generator Microcontroller: Logs system data from voltage and current sensors in 16 MB SD card

42 Power take-off system Waterproof microcontroller housing
Power dissipates in 1500 Watt 1 ohm resistor

43 Power take-off system


45 Heave plate

46 Heave plate Steel square tubing arranged into framework .
Test fitting before final welding of sheet steel Supported from spar by connections of steel cables

47 Heave plate Sheet steel limits water flowing around steel frame
Hydrodynamic damping “Added mass” effect Sheet steel welded to frame using plug and bead welds

48 Heave plate Use of four individual modules advantageous for transportation and storage Plug welds Bead welds

49 Heave plate Steel cable, clips, and thimbles
Steel cable threads through eyelets welded on steel frame

50 Heave Plate


52 Ocean testing Mooring site at depth of 100 feet

53 Ocean testing Lifting with crane
Ring hoists mounted to bottom of buoy, and section of steel frame Allows for lifting and transportation

54 Ring Hoists Ocean testing
Ring hoist selected due to ability to lift angled loads Capacity of 5,000 lbs each

55 Transporting WEC Ocean testing List with 1 Ton crane in EFL
Placed onto trailer provided by EFL Tow trailer and WEC with a FORD F-550

56 Ocean testing UC Davis Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory

57 BML Crane BML Boat Ocean testing 3 Ton lifting capacity
15 foot boom span Drive trailer directly onto dock BML Boat Mussel Point Research Vessel Boat: 42 foot long, with winch system Specifically designed operate in demanding waters nearshore and offshore

58 Example of a Float Bag and 2,000 lbs Anchor
Ocean testing 2,000 lbs Anchor Plan A: train axel (vendor not responding) Plan B: purchase scrap steel $0.15/lbs and cut and weld Plan C: purchase scrap steel $0.40/lbs and vendor will weld Float Bag Plastic bag filled with air Provided by BML Can float 3,000 lbs Will float anchor behind boat Image provided by BML: Example of a Float Bag and 2,000 lbs Anchor

59 Data and results Collect data and analyze power output Compile results
Create a manuscript and instruction manual Upload the instruction manual onto team website Upload informational videos to website (x5) Submit final report to CITRIS Team website Project Wiki

60 References A Review of Wave Energy Converter Technology. Drew, B, Plummer, AR and Sahinaya, MN. s.l.: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK. Frequently Asked Questions. US Energy Information Administration. [Online] US Department of Energy, July 9, [Cited: November 20, Department, Minerals Management. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S.Outer Continental Shelf. s.l. : U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006. Hydraulics: 2X72X1.25 DA HYD CYL Item# Surplus Center. [Online] [Cited: 02 18, 2013.] 72&catname=hydraulic. McMaster- Carr Supply Company. Plastic Material Properties: More About Plastics. McMaster-Carr. [Online] McMaster-Carr Supply Company. More About Steel Alloys. McMaster-Carr. [Online] More About Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. [Online] [Cited: 04 22, 2013.] NOAA. NOAA Marine Environmental Buoy Database. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [Online] NOAA Ocean Facts. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [Online] 2011 йил 17- November. [Cited: 2012 йил 10-November.] Surplus Center. Hydraulics: 4X96X2.25 DA HYD CYL HEAVY DUTY CROSSTUBE. Surplus Center. [Online] [Cited: 02 12, 2013.] Urethane Technologies Inc. Floating Devices Catalog. Denham Springs, Louisiana, USA : s.n. US Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook Renewable Energy Generating Capacity and Generation. Washington DC : US Department of Energy, 2012. US Energy Information Administration. The Electric Power Monthly with Data for August Washington DC : US Department of Energy, 2012. Willis, H. L., Welch, G. V., and Schrieber, R. R. Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc, 2001.

61 Thank you for the opportunity to present our project
Thank you for the opportunity to present our project. We hope you found this information useful. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to ask.

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