3 A systems explanation Output: Input: Process (Throughput): Stability SatisfactionFamily adjustmentIncreased society tolerance“Third” (family/rel) culture”Input:Motives/GoalsDefinitions of relationshipCultures of originCultural values, communicationFamily culturesProcess (Throughput):Communication patterns:ConflictSelf-disclosurePower negotiation, etc.
4 More on Systems Approach EnvironmentOpen/closed systemsInput/Throughput/OutputHomeostasis/Dynamic EquilibriumFeedbackPositive: Change the system!Negative: Keep the system the same!First/Second-order system change!The problem may not be that there is no feedback but that the rules the system is following do not work! Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose…
5 Input: QuestionsWhat are some “input” factors that might impact intercultural, intergroup, or other sorts of relationships?How might the input factors change between:International couplesIntergroup couples (religious, ethnicity, etc.)Stigmatized couples
6 Input: Motives Lampe (1981, 1982): What are the main reasons that people date interethnically?What are the main reasons people do not?Do people date & marry for the same reasons? (Brazil example)
7 Input: Differences (issues) (Romano, 1988) ValuesIn-lawsFood and drinkSexMale/females rolesTimePlace of residencePoliticsDealing w/stressFriendsIllness/sufferingReligionFood & drinkSocial classLanguage/CommRaising childrenEthnocentrism
8 Process: Issues (Markoff, 1977) Problems in communication (verbal, NV differences)Difference in valuesThe concept of marriage (e.g., Char, Collier)Individual behavior and practices (not cultural)Prejudices and stereotypes (yes, even in marriage!)The surrounding family (distance --> greater success!)
9 Process IssuesWhat are some “process” issues intercultural couples might face?What leads (IC) relationships to develop?What are some ways IC couples might resolve cultural differences?
10 Process: Issues (Graham, Moeai, & Shizuru, 1985) The Romeo & Juliet Effect“Internal” versus “External” problemsindividual living habitsinterference with extended familychildrendifferent cultural customstime with friendslanguage difficultiesfinancial problems
11 Process: IR Dating/Marriage Are the issues the same in interracial dating and marriage as in “intercultural” dating and marriage?What about “interfaith” marriage?
12 Process: Solutions Tseng’s 5 Patterns of ICM Adjustment One-Way Adjustment: One partner gives in to the culture of the otherAlternative Adjustment: The couple alternates between culturalSimultaneous Adjustment: Elements of both cultures are adopted at the same time.Mixing: Within a given culture or time, the couple uses aspects of one culture or the other. Tseng uses an example like "enchiladas tonight, sushi tomorrow night." = Compromise (as opposed to submission, consensus, or obliteration).Creative Adjustment: The couple adopts elements of neither culture, but finds their "own" way
13 Intercultural Relationships Some explanations of relational growthPropinquity: Shared spaces interaction potentialSimilarity-Attraction Hypothesis: It’s similarity that makes relationships growURT: No…it’s your ability to predict and explain the other or (AUM) to reduce your anxietySocial Penetration Theory: : Self-disclosureDepth & breadth of SD4 stages of relationshipsDialectical approach: Tensions…Turning points: Key moments…
14 Evaluating a theoryDoes it make sense with everyday life? (e.g., by working through a single example)Are there enough counterexamples to expand the theory?Does it fit prior research?Does it meet goals of type of theory?How does it address theory evaluation standards?How does it compare to other theories?
15 Theory evaluation standards Scope, boundaries: How broad is it? Is what it covers clear?Logical consistency: Does it hold together well?Parsimony: Is it appropriately simple?Testability (if scientific): Can the propositions be measured and tested?Predictive ability (if scientific): Can we make good predictions with the variables provided?Heurism: Does it lead to new study or theory? Does it stand the “test of time”?Explanatory power: Does it explain most cases, or are there classes of cases it does not explain?Utility: Is it useful in everyday life?
16 Anxiety-Uncertainty Management Background: URTConcepts:StrangerAnxiety and Uncertainty (not =!)Effectiveness (and adaptation)Mindfulness vs. ScriptsThresholdsManagement
17 AUM: Refining the structure A list of variablesKnowledge, Motivation, SkillsHofstede’s DimensionsCurrent structureProximal factorsDistal (secondary) factorsOrder and direction of influence
18 AUM Application: My Big Fat Greek Wedding Evaluation: (3.57)(3.25)Evaluation:
19 International Marriaegs in Japan (Quasha & Quasha, 2012) MethodConcepts specific to Japanese relationships?What are some specific aspects of the relationships the authors describe that illustrate the role of culture in relationship?What are some other specific aspects of relationships you recall from the readings?