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Working Women: Better Outcomes for Growth Mayra Buvinic Director, Gender and Development Group World Bank.

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Presentation on theme: "Working Women: Better Outcomes for Growth Mayra Buvinic Director, Gender and Development Group World Bank."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working Women: Better Outcomes for Growth Mayra Buvinic Director, Gender and Development Group World Bank

2 Selective coverage Evidence-based Results-oriented Relies on incentives GAP Guiding Principles

3 Mainstream gender in Bank economic sector operations. Support analytical work and tools to build the evidence base and influence Bank staff and policy in the long-term. GAP: Changing the way the Bank does business

4 Policy level Agency level Empower women to compete in markets Make markets work for women Advance womens economic empowerment GAP Framework

5 Product MarketsInclude female-owned businesses and farms in supply chains Form womens business, purchasing, and transport associations Financial MarketsOffer commercial credit lines and financial services for women Support self-help groups and ROSCAs Land MarketsPromote joint titling to land to enable women to access loans Ensure womens participation in land adjudication and registration processes Labor MarketsCertify good gender practices in firms Provide labor intermediation services to young women Policy Level: Make markets work for women Agency Level: Empower women to compete in markets Infrastructure Increases Access to all 4 Markets

6 GAP Labor Market Portfolio

7 7 GAP Funding SourcePledgesReceipts Trust Fund $ 48,709,175 $ 25,452,087 Bank Budget $ 11,741,231 $ 11,341,231 Total $60,450,406$36,793,318 Financial Contribution to the GAP (as of September 2009) This includes pledges to the new Adolescent Girls Initiative launched in October 2008.

8 8 GAP Allocation by Markets (197 activities) As of September 2009

9 GAP Labor Market Activities AreaNumberFunding (US$) Research10737,000 ESW201,684,000 Data3200,000 Impact Evaluation131,397,500 Active Labor Market projects5637,330 AGI projects517,000,000 Private Sector Leaders Forum1300,000 TOTAL5721,955,830

10 Women and the Financial Crisis

11 11 Women join the labor force in times of crisis Source: WDI, 2008

12 12 Womens labor supply is counter-cyclical in low-income HHs.. Source: Sonia Bhalotra and Marcela Umana-Aponte, 2009. Distress Work amongst Women?: The dynamics of labor supply in (66) developing countries. University of Bristol Percentage Point Change in female LFP from a 10% drop in GDP

13 13 Jobs and earnings losses Cambodias garment industry has laid off 60,000 workers (20% of workforce of the sector). Bangladesh Jute Spinners Association reported a layoff of 20,000 workers in January/February 2009. In China more than 67,000 labor-intensive SMEs have closed down, with total job losses of up to 2.7 million. Women informal sector producers may also lose jobs (even if informal sector usually cushions impacts of crisis). In Ahmedabad, India, ½ of self-employed women in the garment sector saw their monthly earning decrease to less than 1000 Rupees, while all earned above that amount in November 2008l; and 31% saw significant decreases in the number of days worked (SEWA).

14 Lessons Learned

15 Active labor market policies Increasing access to credit / entrepreneurship. Child care programs & family friendly policies CCTs & CDDs Improving Womens Work and Employability

16 Program features to attract womens participation Type of work Nature intermediary agency Location work site Child care provision Below-market wages Eligibility criteria Explicit women targets

17 Interventions: Wage subsidy Training (including on-the-job) Intermediation (job search, counseling, etc) Public works Results: Increase employment rate, especially women Mixed evidence on wage rates Mixed evidence on effects of training Little known on cost-effectiveness (impacts sustained 9 years) Active Labor Market Projects

18 Voucher program (Pro- Empleo - Argentina) increased employment, especially for women and young workers Active Labor Market Projects Source: Galasso, Ravallion & Salvia (2001) Percentage point increase in employment

19 Youth Employment Projects Vocational training program (Jóvenes en Acción – Colombia) raised earnings and employment, with larger effects for women. Source: Attanasio et al (2008)

20 Job displacement? Lower wages? Crowd out private training? Differentials by gender in exiting from workfare? Differentials by gender in stigmatization? Questions

21 Thank you

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