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Unit 5 Numerical Control

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1 Unit 5 Numerical Control
Sections: Fundamentals of NC Technology Computer Numerical Control Distributed Numerical Control Applications of NC NC Part Programming

2 Numerical Control (NC) Defined
Programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a ‘machine tool’ are controlled by a program containing coded alphanumeric data that represents relative positions between a work head (e.g., cutting tool) and a work part Program Instructions Machine Control Unit Transformation Process Power



5 NC Coordinate Systems For flat and prismatic (block-like) parts:
Milling and drilling operations Conventional Cartesian coordinate system Rotational axes about each linear axis For rotational parts: Turning operations Only x- and z-axes

6 Motion Control Systems
Point-to-Point systems Also called position systems System moves to a location and performs an operation at that location (e.g., drilling) Also applicable in robotics Continuous path systems Also called contouring systems in machining System performs an operation during movement (e.g., milling and turning)

7 Interpolation Methods
Linear interpolation Straight line between two points in space Circular interpolation Circular arc defined by starting point, end point, center or radius, and direction Helical interpolation Circular plus linear motion Parabolic and cubic interpolation Free form curves using higher order equations

8 Absolute vs. Incremental Positioning
Absolute positioning Move is: x = 40, y = 50 Incremental positioning Move is: x = 20, y = 30.

9 Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
Storage of more than one part program Various forms of program input Program editing at the machine tool Fixed cycles and programming subroutines Interpolation Acceleration and deceleration computations Communications interface Diagnostics

10 Machine Control Unit

11 DNC Direct numerical control (DNC) – control of multiple machine tools by a single (mainframe) computer through direct connection and in real time 1960s technology Two way communication Distributed numerical control (DNC) – network consisting of central computer connected to machine tool MCUs, which are CNC Present technology

12 Distributed Numerical Control
Central Computer NC Pgms Computer Network BTR BTR BTR Machine Control Unit Machine Control Unit Machine Control Unit Transformation Process

13 Applications of NC

14 NC Application Characteristics (Machining)
Batch and High Volume production Repeat and/or Repetitive orders Complex part geometries Mundane operations Many separate operations on one part

15 Cost-Benefits of NC Costs High investment cost High maintenance effort
Need for skilled programmers High utilization required Benefits Cycle time reduction Nonproductive time reduction Greater accuracy and repeatability Lower scrap rates Reduced parts inventory and floor space Operator skill-level reduced

16 Precision

17 NC Part Programming Manual part programming Manual data input
Computer-assisted part programming Part programming using CAD/CAM

18 Manual Part Programming
Binary Coded Decimal System Each of the ten digits in decimal system (0-9) is coded with four-digit binary number The binary numbers are added to give the value BCD is compatible with 8 bits across tape format, the original storage medium for NC part programs Eight bits can also be used for letters and symbols

19 Creating Instructions for NC
Bit - 0 or 1 = absence or presence of hole in the tape Character - row of bits across the tape Word - sequence of characters (e.g., y-axis position) Block - collection of words to form one complete instruction Part program - sequence of instructions (blocks)

20 Block Format Organization of words within a block in NC part program
Also known as tape format because the original formats were designed for punched tape Word address format - used on all modern CNC controllers Uses a letter prefix to identify each type of word Spaces to separate words within the block Allows any order of words in a block Words can be omitted if their values do not change from the previous block

21 Types of Words N - sequence number prefix G - preparatory words
Example: G00 = PTP rapid traverse move X, Y, Z - prefixes for x, y, and z-axes F - feed rate prefix S - spindle speed T - tool selection M - miscellaneous command Example: M07 = turn cutting fluid on

22 Example: Word Address Format
N001 G00 X07000 Y03000 M03 N002 Y06000

23 Cutter Offset Cutter path must be offset from actual part outline by a distance equal to the cutter radius

24 Issues in Manual Part Programming
Adequate for simple jobs, e.g., PTP drilling Linear interpolation G01 G94 X050.0 Y086.5 Z100.0 F40 S800 Circular interpolation G02 G17 X088.0 Y040.0 R028.0 F30 Cutter offset G42 G01 X100.0 Y040.0 D05

25 Example

26 Manual Data Input Machine operator does part programming at machine
Operator enters program by responding to prompts and questions by system Monitor with graphics verifies tool path Usually for relatively simple parts Ideal for small shop that cannot afford a part programming staff To minimize changeover time, system should allow programming of next job while current job is running

27 Computer-Assisted Part Programming
Write machine instructions using natural language type statements Statements translated into machine code of the MCU APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) Language

28 Sample Statements Part is composed of basic geometric elements and mathematically defined surfaces Examples of statements: P4 = POINT/35,90,0 L1 = LINE/P1,P2 C1 = CIRCLE/CENTER,P8,RADIUS,30 Tool path is sequence of points or connected line and arc segments Point-to-Point command: GOTO/P4 Continuous path command: GOLFT/L1,TANTO,C1

29 NC Part Programming Using CAD/CAM

30 YouTube CNC Milling CNC Punching CNC Adhesive Bonding
CNC Drug Insertion CNC Bioprocessing CAD/CAM Etc.

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