Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Learning and Development

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Learning and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning and Development
Paraeducator Institute

2 Ice Breaker: Our common experience
“Education is the process of helping everyone discover his or her uniqueness, to teach him or her how to develop that uniqueness, and then to show him or her how to share it…..” Leo Buscalia

3 Ice Breaker: Our common experience
Which teacher helped you grow and find your uniqueness? Reflect Share with one other person

4 Today’s Objectives Understand the patterns of typical child development. Understand the developmental foundations of the California Content Frameworks.

5 Today’s Objectives Understand the external factors which influence learning. Develop skills in formulating content strategies to support students with special needs.

6 Typical Growth and Development
To understand different learning patterns among students, we must first recognize how typical growth and development proceeds. This allows us to know how to adjust our strategies and approaches to meet the needs of special education students. Hold high expectations and demand excellence

7 Typical Growth and Development
We will look at how children develop generally. Then beginning at birth and going to late adolescence we will look at motor, language, social and cognitive growth.

8 Overview of Typical Development
Certain communication, motor, and social developmental milestones are reached from birth to age 5.

9 Overview of Development
For most children, a concrete approach to learning is more successful until ages After this age, most children are able to handle more abstract concepts.

10 Overview of Development
Certain developmental tasks are achieved during adolescence that often impact learning. -Adjustment to physical changes -Development of independence from parents -Establishment of social relationships with peers of the same or opposite sex - Preparation for a meaningful vocation

11 Typical Motor Development: Birth to 5
18 months to 24 months -Runs -Kicks a ball -Builds a cube tower

12 Typical Motor Development: Birth to 5
2 to 3 years -Jumps off a step -Rides a tricycle -Uses crayons -Builds a 9-10 cube tower

13 Typical Motor Development: 3 to 4 years of age
-Stands on one leg -Jumps up and down -Draws a circle and a cross (4 years) -Self Sufficient in many routines of home life

14 Typical Motor Development: 4 to 5 years of age
-Skips -Broad jumps -Dresses Self -Copies a square and triangle

15 Typical Language Development: Birth to 5
18 to 24 months -Vocabulary develops (200 words or more) 2 to 3 years -Short sentences -Controls and explores with language -Stuttering (may appear briefly)

16 Typical Language Development: 4 to 5 years of age
-Speaks clearly -Uses adult speech sounds -Has mastered basic grammar -Relates a story -Knows over 2000 words at 5 years of age

17 Typical Language Development: 6 years of age
Language at age 6 -Mastery of some beginning consonants -Concepts of 7 -Should be able to tell a connected story about a picture -Can see relationships between objects and happenings

18 Typical Language Development: 7 years of age
-Mastery of consonants -Handle opposite analogies easily -Understands such terms as: alike, different, beginning, end -Able to tell time to the quarter hour -Simple reading -Writes or prints words

19 Typical Language Development: 8 years of age
-Can relate involved accounts of events. -All speech sounds, including consonant blends should be established. -Reads with ease. -Writes simple compositions. -Uses social amenities appropriately. -Follows complex directions. -Has well developed time and number concepts.

20 Typical Social Development: 18 to 24 months of age
-Obeys limited commands. -Feeds self.

21 Typical Social Development: 2 to 3 years
-Uses “I”, “me”, “you” -Copies parents actions -Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys -Parallel play with other children (playing along side other children) -Negativism, resists parental demands (enters the terrible twos!) -Gives orders

22 Typical Social Development: 3 to 4 years
-Likes to share -Uses “we” -Cooperative play with other children -Imitates parents -Beginning of identification with same sex parent -Intense curiosity in other children’s bodies -Imaginary friend

23 Typical Social Development: 4 to 5 years
-Prefers to play with other children -Becomes competitive -Prefers gender appropriate activities

24 Table Discussion Early Milestones

25 Typical Cognitive Development: 7 to 11 years of age
-Shows evidence for logical organized thought. -Can perform multiple classification tasks. -Thinking becomes less egocentric. -Is capable of concrete problem solving. -Exhibits reversability (3+4=7 and 7-4=3). -Can sort unlike objects into logical groups (e.g., animals, toys, & food may be sorted on the basis or color or size).

26 Typical Cognitive Development: 11 to 15 years of age
-Thought becomes more abstract -Can incorporate principles of formal logic. -Can generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and possible outcomes. -Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality.

27 Typical Growth & Development
Table Discussion Typical Growth & Development Cognition

28 4 Questions facing adolescents
Who am I ? (social role and sexuality) Am I normal ? (Do I fit in with a certain crowd?) Am I competent? (Am I good at something that is valued by peers and adults?) Am I lovable and loving? (Can someone besides Mom and Dad love me?)

29 Developmental Goals of Adolescence
Develop new levels of trust and closeness with peers. Gain independence from parents and achieve new status within the family. Develop a sense of personal identity. Move toward autonomy in the larger world.

30 Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Early Adolescence
9 to 13 years of age -Significant physical and sexual maturation -Intense concern with body image -Growing independence in decision-making

31 Typical social/behavioral development: Early Adolescence
-Increasing influence of peers -Feelings of attraction toward others begins -Experimenting with new ways of behaving begins

32 Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Middle Adolescence
-Continuing physical/sexual changes -Less concern with body image -Development of sense of identity -Exploration of ability to attract partners begins

33 Typical Social/Behavioral Development: Middle Adolescence
-Enormous influence of peers/school environment -Increase in sexual interest -Risk-taking behavior

34 Typical Physical/Emotional Development: Late Adolescence
-Physical/sexual changes complete -Greater acceptance of physical appearance -Sense of identity established

35 Typical Social/Behavioral Development: Late Adolescence
-Family influence is more in balance with peer influence. -Serious intimate relationships begin to develop. -Transition to work, college, independent living begins. -Capacity for realistic risk assessment develops.

36 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults
Give them a chance to reflect on who they are. A way to do this is to engage then in non-threatening questions such as: Who do you admire? What do you like to do in your free time? What do you consider to be your strengths? What have you done that you feel proud of?

37 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults
Casually show rational decision-making strategies, such as discussing how someone you know defined a problem, generated options, anticipated outcomes, and made a decision. Discuss ethical and moral problems that are in the news.

38 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults
Encourage them to: -take more responsibility in schoolwork and school-related activities -hold summer jobs -develop future goals -get involved in community activities -examine career/educational options

39 Reaching the Goal: Tips for Adults
Show warmth and respect. Show serious interest in their choices and lives. Attend to the changes they are experiencing. Implement clear standards of discipline and close supervision. Communicate high expectations for achievement and ethical behavior. Use democratic ways of dealing with conflict.

40 Application Exercise Leticia Joe Kate Ethan

41 Developmental Aspects of the California Content Frameworks

42 Developmental Aspects of the California Content Frameworks

43 Organization of the Framework
Introduction Grade level expectations Standards

44 Developmental Aspects of the Content Frameworks (Activity)
The content of classroom instruction is based on the California Content Standards. --A copy of introduction to a specific grade level for either a Language Arts or Math framework is being distributed. --In groups of 2 to 4, review the introduction and discuss the questions on the next slide.

45 Questions: Examine the Packet
How is the developmental information presented earlier used in the Framework? Do you think any skill or concept is too hard or too easy? How can you use this information when working with the students in your classroom?

46 Important things to consider when using content standards
There should be a common understanding of the meaning of the standard among those instructing students. Students must know what the standard means and what performance is expected.

47 Important things to consider when using standards
Students must understand the relationship between the standards, what they are taught and the assessments they take. Student work should be “graded” based on providing feedback on how they are learning the standards—this is called a rubric.

48 Some additional things that influence learning
Even in a classroom that is considering: -what is appropriate developmentally to ask of students -and which teaches to standards -and which has high expectations there are still some additional influences on how students learn………

49 How do Children Learn? What goes on in the learning process?
IMITATION -Children imitate and model what adults do and say. Be aware of the impact of culture and practices within groups when considering how children learn. Children learn from what they See Hear, and Experience in their environment Children learn from their Parents Teachers Other adults around them Children model the words and actions of others.

50 How do children learn? What goes into the learning process?
IMAGERY-MENTAL PICTURES Mother said, “The painting is nice.” Children form a picture in their mind of what they are learning. Images and words are formed in their minds long before infants and children are able to verbalize them. For example, a toddler can follow a verbal direction lo9ng before they are able to verbalize that same direction.

51 How do children learn? Attention Attitude
and ATTENTION Children who are attentive increase their chances of learning new information. ATTITUDE Children will respond positively or negatively towards learning a new task. A positive attitude toward learning something new will increase that child’s chances of learning. Attention and learning go together. A positive attitude is key when learning new skills.

52 How do children learn? Feedback
Comes from the outside For learning about one’s own responses Necessary for correcting mistakes Feedback provides learners with information about their responses. -Feedback almost always comes from outside sources. Feedback is necessary to correct mistakes. BE CAREFUL THAT OUR FEEDBACK IS NOT SARCASTIC! SARCASM FROM ADULTS DIRECTED AT A STUDENT KILLS THE LEARNING PROCESS!

53 How do children learn? Reinforcement
Internal or external Will influence whether or not behavior will be repeated or learned Reinforcement affects whether the child will repeat the response. Reinforcement may be external (from the environment) or internal (from the child).

May be positive (increases a given response) or negative (decreases a given response) Can motivate a child to learn Should be immediate and promote learning

55 MEMORY m Teacher: John, spell Memory can be strengthened.
Memory is closely associated with learning. Teacher: John, spell “money.” m New information can be organized in ways that strengthen their attachment in the child’s memory.

56 METACOGNITION What do I know? How do I learn? “Knowing what I know”
As children get older, they begin to understand more about how they learn. This is an important component of the learning process. It helps learners recognize their own strengths and weaknesses.

57 Motivation increases learning.
Effective teachers use strategies that continually motivate their students to learn. Motivation is the key to engaging students in the learning process. Motivation creates enthusiasm and a desire to learn more.

58 Anxiety Most of the time anxiety decreases learning.
Avoid strategies and techniques that create anxiety. Advance organizers prepares the learner for what is coming and can decrease anxiety about the academic task.

59 Learning and Development
David Sousa Lecture The emphasis on the lecture should be placed on the strategies that have proved successful for students in special education classes. You will see that the strategies utilized are good teaching approaches that may be used with all students. The video provides useful information about the biology of ALL brains, and and should be viewed from that perspective. The following slides represent notes taken from the lecture. You may also want to add your own.

60 Language Acquisition Some students have problems with language acquisition. Learning a second language is not a disability nor a handicapping condition. Individuals acquire second languages at different rates.

61 Reading Difficulties Difficulty in reading is one of the most common reasons for referral for special education services. A reading problem alone is not indicative of a learning disability.

62 Reading Difficulties Children with learning disabilities and poor readers respond equally well to instructional programs and techniques in phonemic awareness and phonics.

63 Learning Disabilities
The definition of learning disability states that the student must have average general ability (cognitive status must be within the average range).

64 Discussion Characteristics of students with learning disabilities
What strategies were discussed? What are some other strategies? What strategies would you use with some students that you know of?

65 Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is a disorder and not an identified disability under federal or CA state law. Students with ADHD may meet the criteria as Other Health Impaired (OHI) if their educational performance is adversely affected.

66 What are the causes of ADHD behavior?
Caffeine & other diet contributors Sleep deprivation Lack of parental rule enforcement Depression Some medications

67 What are the causes of ADHD behavior?
School environment Arbitrarily applied rules of discipline Too much sitting for the students Too much teacher talk Room too dark Not enough student-teacher interaction Other drugs (i.e., drugs for asthma)

68 Managing ADHD Behavior
Display a short list of positive rules. Make sure that students understand them. Post the classroom schedule of assignments clearly. Describe specific tasks and due dates. Call attention to any schedule changes. Design a quite workspace that students can use on request.

69 Managing ADHD Behavior
Seat problem students near positive peer models. Use morning hours for academics. Provide frequent stretch breaks. Use attention-getting devices (e.g., secret signals, color codes, etc.) Do a countdown for the last several minutes of an activity.

70 Managing ADHD Behavior
If a student begins to get disruptive, divert the student with another activity. Sincerely praise students for constructive behavior. Shift the focus away from competition to contribution, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Contact parents to report good news and build a supportive relationship.

71 Hop-To-It Activity for Students
Emphasizes Sequential acquisition of information….

72 School Induced ADHD What may cause school-induced ADHD?
What are some strategies that may be used with students who exhibit these behaviors?

73 Discussion Strategies to use with students who display ADHD behaviors

74 Language Disorders TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT birth Recognizes other
Grammatical differences Phoneme recognition Most language activity moves to left hemisphere Recognizes noun/verb differences Attaches meaning to words Responds to prosody 36 24 30 birth 6 12 18

75 Putting It All Together
Phonology Phonemes (the smallest sounds of language) Morphology Word formation Syntax Sentence formation Semantics Word and sentence meaning

76 Putting It All Together
Prosody Intonation and rhythm of speech Pragmatics Effective use of language for different purposes, following rules of conversation, and staying on topic

77 Language Problems Inability to detect phoneme differences
Problems with verbal short-term memory Long-term memory deficits

78 Strategies for Developing Oral Language Skills
Talk to the child. Have the child talk back to you. Ask open-ended questions. Solicit longer answers (e.g., answers longer than “fine,” “yes,” “no,” etc.)

79 Strategies for Developing Oral Language Skills
Have the child describe objects and point to them as they describe them. Have the child describe actions and behaviors.

80 Phonemic Awareness Development
Play rhyming games. Play the Broken Record Game. Take dictation from a child, write it down and read it back to them

81 Phonemic Awareness Development
I Spy Game I spy something in this room that is ______ ______ A student in the room responds, goes to stand by the object, and then it is her turn to describe an object (or the teacher may continue to provide the descriptions) NOTE: THE TEACHER MODELS AND STUDENTS RESPOND WITH ORAL LANGUAGE AND WITH THEIR BODIES

82 Using Our Bodies Body parts represent the locations of the continents.

83 Discussion Strategies to use with students who show language disorders

84 Reading Disorders How the brain reads: Auditory Processing:
“What do I hear?” (Phonology) Understanding: “What does it mean?” furry animal that barks dawg Visual Processing: “What do I see?” (Orthography) dog

85 Successful Reading Requires the coordination of three neural networks:
Visual processing Sound Recognition (Auditory Processing) Word Interpretation

86 Reading Problems Deficits in phoneme awareness and the alphabetic principle Problems in visual acquisition Word meaning problems

87 Story Maps _____Name of Story _____Problem/Main Idea _____Main Persons
_____Main Character _____How is the problem resolved?

88 Reading Strategies Previewing Predicting Search for key words
Explain to your neighbor

89 Discussion Discuss strategies

Visual Input Auditory Input Orthographic Analysis Auditory Analysis Graphemic Output Phonological Output Phoneme to Grapheme Conversion Motor Output Speech Writing


92 For Students Who Already Have Some Writing Skill
Writing Strategies For Students Who Already Have Some Writing Skill Power Strategy P – Plan the paper O – Organize a draft W – Write a draft E – Edit the draft R – Review the work

93 Discussion Discuss strategies. What are some others?

94 Mathematical Disorders
Calculations Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe More complex calculations Other brain areas are activated

95 Dyscalculia Poor ability to do calculations:
Problems with counting numbers Problems with arithmetic skills Left hemisphere problems Deficits in long-term memory Problems with working memory Visual-spatial deficits Right hemisphere

96 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills
Follow sequential directions. Recognize patterns. Estimate by forming a reasonable guess about quantity, size, magnitude, and amount Visualize pictures in one’s mind and manipulate them.

97 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills
Have a good sense of spatial orientation and space organization, including telling left from right, compass directions, horizontal and vertical directions, etc.

98 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills
Do deductive reasoning, that is, reason from a general principle to a particular instance, or from a stated premise to a logical conclusion.

99 Mathematics Strategies: Prerequisite Skills
Do inductive reasoning, that is, come to a natural understanding that is not the result of conscious attention or reasoning, easily detecting the patterns in different situations and the interrelationships between procedures and concepts.

100 Mathematics Strategies
Shorten the way that math is taught. Shorten the time relationship between learning numbers and learning number concepts. Use more manipulatives.

101 Mathematics Strategies
Emphasize patterns in math. Build on the student’s strengths. Use novelty.

102 An ending thought Tell me what you expect of me.
Give me the opportunity to perform. Let me know how I am getting along. Give me guidance where I need it. Reward me according to my contribution. Paul “Bear” Bryant

Download ppt "Learning and Development"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google