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The Cultural Geography of Europe

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1 The Cultural Geography of Europe
Unit 4 – Chapter 12

2 I. Section I Population Patterns

3 A. Ethnic Diversity Ethnic Groups Ethnic Tensions Sources of Unity
Europe is home to more than 160 separate ethnic groups Ethnic Tensions The Balkan Peninsula has had lots of turmoil because of these tensions Yugoslavia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo Ethnic Cleansing – killing rival ethnic groups As a result, many people become refugees – people who flee to a foreign country Sources of Unity Europeans in recent years have been striving towards more unity

4 B. Population Characteristics
Population Density Europe’s population density is greater than that of any other continent except Asia. Population Distribution Compare maps on pg. 262 & pg. 260 Why do people choose to live where they do?

5 C. Urbanization Urban Features Population Movements
About 75% of the population lives in the cities What does this cause? Population Movements During the 1800s & early 1900s, many Europeans migrated to the Americas and other areas Since the mid-1900s, not many people have left Europe but many foreign people moved in (often to fill open jobs) Later, when the economy slowed down, this caused tension Europe’s overall population is shrinking Make sure you read pgs

6 II. Section II History & Government

7 A. The Rise of Europe Early Peoples
Fossils show that early people lived in Europe more than a million years ago! Ancient Greece & Rome The 1st ancient civilization was the Greek 400s – 300s B.C. The 2nd was the Romans 27 B.C – A.D. 180 City-States were originally formed during this time A Christian Europe In the late A.D. 300s, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, and later one of the world’s major religions The Middle Ages After the fall of Feudalism occurred during this timeRome, Europe entered the Middle Ages (A.D )

8 B. Expansion of Europe Crusades – a series of brutal religious wars – to win Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity, from Muslim rule European Explorations In the 1400s, Europe began exploring the rest of the world

9 Expansion of Europe (Cont.)
Renaissance – during this period, many Europeans developed a higher interest in the Arts The Reformation movement occurred during this time Lessened the power of the Roman Catholic church and led to the beginnings of Protestantism

10 C. Changing Europe Make sure you read this section (pg. 297-300)!
Revolutions Enlightenment – political & economic revolutions Industrial Capitalism – an economic system in which business leaders used profits to expand their countries Under this system, new classes emerged Social problems led to the birth of communism – society based on economic equality

11 C. (cont) Conflict & Division
WWI – – caused by rivalries among European powers (for colonies and economic power) Reparations – payment for damages WWII – – because of unsolved problems from WWI and a worldwide depression, Mussolini and Hitler gained control of Italy and Germany They expanded their countries’ control, which led to the war Holocaust – major horror of WWII – mass killing of over 6 million Jews WWII left Europe ruined and divided – part was communist (controlled by the Soviet Union) and part was democratic This division led to the Cold War

12 C. (cont – Holocaust) – Mass grave sites and mass killing of Jews

13 C. (cont – Holocaust) – Jewish children that were used for experiments

14 C. (cont) The Cold War in Europe
Cold War – a power struggle between the communist world (led by Soviet Union) and the noncommunist world (led by U.S.) A divided Germany became the “hot point” of the Cold War A New Era for Europe From 1950s-1980s, revolts against communist rule swept E. Europe The infamous Berlin Wall came down in 1990 and the two parts of Germany reunited 3 years later, Czechoslovakia split into two separate countries 1990s – European Union (EU) was formed – goal to unite countries – now contains 25 countries 1992 – Maastricht Treaty signed – common bank and currency 1999 – Euro – common currency launched

15 III. Section III Cultures & Lifestyles

16 A. Expressions of Cultures
Languages About 50 different languages About 100 different dialects Language Family Mostly Indo-European Slavic – Polish, Czech, etc. Baltic – Latvian, etc. Germanic – German, Dutch, English, etc. Romance Languages (comes from Latin) – Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Romanian Others – Greek, Albanian, Celtic

17 A. Expressions of Cultures(cont)
Religion Primarily Christianity Mostly Roman Catholics Pope is the head of this church Where is he located? Religion has caused many wars here Northern Ireland – Catholics vs. Protestants the Good Friday Peace Agreement

18 A. Expressions of Cultures (cont)
Arts Close relationship between religion and architecture Romanticism – arts focused on emotions Realism – arts depicting everyday life Impressionism – experiences of the natural world

19 B. Quality of Life Differences Education
Western Europe – more industrialized Eastern & Southern Europe – more struggles Education Countries with more educated people = more economic success State-Sponsored Human Services Welfare States – offer complete social welfare to their citizens Helps provide higher education, health care, and social security

20 C. Lifestyles Home Life Sports & Recreation Celebrations
Extended families & family importance Sports & Recreation Soccer is major sport Rugby Tennis Skiing Cycling Celebrations Europeans celebrate many of the same holidays as us but their holidays often include many traditions passed down through several generations

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