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Integrated Pest Management

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1 Integrated Pest Management

2 Reading Assignment: Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14.

3 Define “Pest”

4 FIFRA Definition of “Pest”
(1) any organism that interferes with the activities and desires of humans or (2) any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism (except viruses, bacteria, or other micro- organism on or in living man or other living animals) which the Administrator declares to be a pest under section 25(c)(1).

5 A Working Definition of “Pest”
An injurious and noxious or troublesome living organism [that] does not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on humans or animals (British Columbia Pesticide Control Act,1997) Includes insects, weeds, plant pathogens, birds, non-human mammals and other organisms which pose non-medical problems to humans and non-veterinary problems to animals

6 A pest must cause injury
In order for an organism to be considered a pest, a damaging stage of the organism must be present in high enough numbers to cause actual injury to something valued by people.

7 “Pest” is not a property of a species
Being a pest is not an inherent property of a species but, rather, a species (along with its population and age distribution at a given time and place) and a human valuation of the item being injured or damaged.

8 Four things required to “make” a pest (Fig. 1-6 from text)
Pest species must be present at the right stage Environmental criteria must be met. Crop must be a susceptible variety and growth stage. All of the above must occur at the same time.

9 This is a pathosystem concept
Pathogen – host – environnment triad must all be right in order for an outbreak of disease. When pest – crop – environment right, leads to “damage”.

10 Pest damage to crops is significant.
From Fig. 1-9

11 How do pests become pests?
New crop introductions New organism introductions Production system practices Removal of limiting factors Low tolerance

12 The Pest Complex The specific collection of pest species attacking a specific commodity or cropping system at any given time and location. A given complex is divisible into different “groups”: Invertebrates (arthropods, molluscs) Vertebrates (mammals, fish, birds) Weeds (perennials, summer/winter annuals) Plant Pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes)

13 Each pest species has a given status within a complex
Key pests Minor pests Secondary pests Occasional pests Potential pests Chronic pests Migrants Accessory Species Vectors (Pest status often linked with pathogen) Alternate Hosts

14 Pests are often classified by the type of injury that they cause
General Terms Direct Pests Indirect Pests Medical/Veterinary

15 Pest Injury versus Damage
Injury – The effect that the pest has on the crop or commodity. Damage – The effect that injury has on man’s valuation of that crop or commodity. For crops, “Injury” is biological and “Damage” is economic. For non-crops, “Injury” = “Damage”.

16 Working Concept for Damage
Measurable Damage Maximum Value } { Economic Damage Loss in value is great enough to warrant control action. Value Injury

17 Organisms that cause economic damage are the ones of interest in pest management

18 Introducing “Pest Management”
“Management” -- a process by which information is collected and used to make good management decisions to reduce pest population impacts in a planned, coordinated way. Requires: Tolerance Information Strategy

19 IPM Defined IPM – A system that maintains the population of any pest, or pests, at or below the level that causes damage or loss, and which minimizes adverse impacts on society and environment. Attempts to balance the benefits of pest control actions with the costs when each is considered in the broadest possible terms.

20 Balancing costs and benefits can be done at various levels

21 The Pest Management Continuum
Pest Management at the Crossroads See Handout.

22 Distribution of US Cropland Over the IPM Continuum
Total US Crop Acreage Source: Benbrook Consulting Services Analysis of Data in Adoption of IPM in U.S. Agriculture, ERS/USDA, 1994

23 Limitation on IPM is Macro vs. Micro Economics
Social Cost Cost to Farmer (Micro) Cost to Society (Macro) Farmer Cost No IPM Low Medium High (Biointensive) IPM Continuum

24 Proponents of one flavor often attack other flavors
As an example, read the paper by Ehler & Bottrell in the Reading Assignments for Jan 14. Come Prepared to Discuss

25 Two Basic Decision Categories in IPM
Most Control Decisions Combine One of Each of the Following: Tactical vs. Strategic Tactics – Individual control options Strategies – Combinations of Tactics Preventative (Prophylactic) vs. Curative (Therapeutic) Preventative – Before pest is a threat Curative – When pest is threatening

26 Hypothetical Strategy
Preventative Tactics Preventative Rescue

27 IPM Strategies are Implemented Via Programs
Programs include pest monitoring and decision tools Monitoring & decision tools tie into the strategy.

28 Strategy vs. Program (Strategic Plan)
Pest Management Program

29 The Evolution of IPM Pest management is at least as old as agriculture. It has evolved along with agriculture and technology Generally, when technology as advanced, so has pest management (and vice versa). Read Chapter 3 in text: Historical Development of Pest Management. Pp

30 Four Logical Periods Before WWI Between WWI & WWII
Between WWII & 1962 (Silent Spring) 1962 onward

31 Before WWI Periods of great advancement followed by decline.
Advancing periods characterized by: Scientific inquiry into the nature of crops and pest biologies Agricultural production for profit, specifically, for well-developed export markets.

32 Early Examples 4,000 – 5,000 BC Early China 2,500 BC Summerians
1,000 BC Egyptians 400 – 200 BC Greeks 200 BC – 100 AD Romans 1500 – 1700 AD Baconism

33 Major Events in Baconism
Voyages of Discovery Printing & Woodcuts Perspective in Art Microscope Invented First Naturalists Agricultural Markets Develop Scientific Method

34 During the 19th Century Great strides in biological knowledge (e.g. germ theory, evolution, genetics). Industrial revolution leads to large scale farming and commercial markets Modern pest groups are recognized (insects, weeds, pathogens) Potato famine creates incentive for government funding of pest controls.

35 19th Century Pest Control Advances
Pressurized spray equipment nozzles invented First modern success in biological control First modern success in host plant resistance Modern cultural tools developed Most key pests’ biologies understood

36 By WWI Modern pest tactics were available but only a few were practical. Developed countries were being invaded by major foreign pests.

37 Pest Control Depended on Relative Crop Value
Between WWI & WWII Pest Control Depended on Relative Crop Value High Value Crops – Became pesticide-oriented: Improved equipment and chemicals Low Value Crops – Management-oriented. Emphasis on plant breeding, cultural methods, basic science & ecology

38 During the 1940’s 1940 – DDT patented as an insecticide
1942 – BHC found insecticidal 1943 – 2,4-D found effective as a herbicide 1946 – Gerhard Schrader hired by Bayer 1946 – Houseflies found resistant to DDT

39 During 1950’s Organic chemical pesticides become routine on all crops
Viewed as “modern” farming Low risk, “cost of business” Few/no regulations High prices/demand for US exports Problems would not be addressed until 1962

40 Problems Arising During the 1950’s
Pest Resistance Bird/Fish Kills Human Poisonings Secondary Pests Biomagnification

41 “Pesticide Treadmill”
Spray, kill pest & natural controls. Pest comes back. Repeat until… Resistance in primary pest. Increase application rates. Kill broader range of natural controls. Induce secondary pest Begin spraying for secondary pest until… Resistance in secondary pest Change chemicals. Repeat sequence.

42 IPM Evolution Continued

43 Reading Assignment Norris et al. Chapter 2. Pests and Their Impacts. Pp

44 Silent Spring in Context of its Time
In the 10 years before Silent Spring… Many new innovations were introduced. Pesticides were viewed as one of them. Widespread attitude was that man could control nature. Pesticides were a manifestation of that view. After the depression & war, people wanted to believe that the govt & corporations could be trusted.

45 Silent Spring Coincided with Other Events
1962 – John Glen’s first orbital flight. 1962 – Thalidomide taken off market (problem identified 11/61, public outrage throughout 1962). 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis 1961 – 1963 – MLK’s movement climaxes 1961 – 1963 – US increased presence from 900 to 16,000 in Viet Nam 1963 – JFK assassinated

46 Silent Spring Aftermath
1963 – President’s Science Advisory Committee issues report calling for reducing pesticides’ effects. 1963 – Senate calls for creation of Environmental Protection Commission Early – mid ’60’s – Increased sensitivity in analytical equipment enables detection of ppb’s. Including other chemicals. 1965 – First pesticide food tolerances

47 As the Effects Spread … Public became increasingly negative toward chemical companies. 1970 – EPA established. 1972 – DDT banned (biomagnification) 1973 – IBP project started Emphasized pest control as a system Introduced pest modeling/decision tools Only for insects

48 IPM Concept Solidifies in the 1970’s
1975 – First textbook, Metcalf & Luckman (former had been criticized in SS) 1978 – CIPM project replaces IBP Included weeds & plant pathogens Included economic analyses 1978 – KY statewide IPM program began

49 IPM Becomes Ingrained 1984 – IPM becomes an annual federal budget item
Large-scale scouting programs rise, decline, and stabilize in the 1980’s 1993 – National IPM Initiative: 75 % of US cropland to have IPM by 2000 2000 – National effort to develop “Crop Profiles” and “IPM Strategic Plans”

50 Current Status IPM widely recognized as the proper approach to dealing with pests in production agriculture. Implementation is up to individual farmers so it varies considerably Concepts are well established but the technology continues to improve.

51 Significance of Pests in IPM
By Wednesday, Read Norris et al. Chapter 5, Comparative Biology of Pests

52 Impact Related to Direct & Indirect Effects
Comparison of Direct and Indirect Pests Characteristic Direct Indirect Commodity Marketable Non-Marketable Yield-Pest Relationship Simple Complex Pest Status Usually Key Pest Any Pest Group Insects & Pathogens Farmer Tolerance Low Higher

53 General Impact of Pests -- Injury
Consumption of plant parts Chemical toxins, elicitors, and signals Physical damage Loss of harvest quality Cosmetic damage Vectoring of pathogens Direct contamination

54 General Impact of Pests – Non-injury
Costs incurred to implement controls Environmental and social costs Regulatory costs (embargoes, quarantines, shipment costs, etc.)

55 Crop Injury in More Detail
Tissue Injury Leaves Structural Roots Flowers and Fruiting/Reproductive Tissues General Systemic Injury Weed Effects Competition for Water, Light, Nutrients Allelopathy Other Economic Effects

56 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Abscission -- Leaf prematurely dropped by the plant, often while still green.

57 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Bleaching Leaf turns white or nearly so. Usually caused by using the wrong herbicide.

58 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Chlorosis Leaf tissue loses its chlorophyll and turns yellow. May occur in spots. Chlorosis in soybeans. Individual leaves (left) and at the field level (right).

59 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Crinkling Leaf takes on a crinkled texture. Usually associated with viruses or toxic effects of saliva from homopterous insects. Crinkling may occur throughout the leaf (left) or may be confined to edges (right).

60 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Cupping and Curling Leaves cup up or down or they curl inward from the edges. Downward cupping along main vein of each leaflet in soybeans caused by Bean Common Mosaic Potyvirus

61 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Edge Feeding Leaves chewed and eaten from the edges. Feeding lesions can have smooth or jagged edges. Usually caused by insects w/chewing mouthparts. Leaf edge feeding on rhododendron leaves by adult black vine root weevils.

62 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Hole Feeding Leaves have holes chewed through them. Caused by insects w/chewing mouthparts. Yellow poplar weevil adult feeding on yellow poplar

63 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Mines Caused by small, immature beetles or flies that live in-between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The shape of the mine, along with the plant species being attacked, is useful in identifying the pest species involved. Frass-linear leaf mine on birch leaf. Mines come in many shapes.

64 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Mottling Leaf is not uniform in color but is, instead, a mottled mixture of different shades of green to yellow. Soybean leaf mottling caused by the Bean Pod Mottle Virus.

65 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Necrosis Areas of dead tissue which usually sloughs off over time. Necrosis simply means dead tissue and may occur in any pattern. Necrosis may be in spots (top left), on leaf margins (above), or follow leaf veins (bottom left). Other patterns are possible as well.

66 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Rolling Leaf is rolled up like a cigar. Usually caused by caterpillars that use the rolled leaf as a pupation chamber. Leaves may be rolled entirely (above) or only partially (left).

67 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Shothole Small holes in a straight line across the leaf. Usually caused by insects that bore through the developing leaf when the un-emerged leaf is still rolled up in the plant’s whorl.

68 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Skeletonization Leaf tissue between the veins is removed but the veins remain intact leaving a skeleton-like appearance. Lindin leaf skeletonized by Japanese beetle. Note that the distal leaf tissue is relatively normal looking indicating that the leaf veins are fully functional.

69 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Spots Caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases. Spots vary in size, shape and number and may be solid or only peripheral (e.g. ring spot, frog-eye spot). Fungal leaf spot on soybean Bacterial leaf spot on pepper Viral ring spot on purple cone flower

70 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Stippling Large numbers of tiny pin-prick feeding lesions cause by mites or other minute herbivores with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Leaf stippling by leaf hoppers (sucking insect). Non-uniform pattern. Stippling = dead cells surrounding feeding puncture.

71 Tissue Injury to Leaves
Windowpaning One side of the leaf is scrapped off leaving the other side intact and translucent. This gives the feeding lesion a window-like appearance. Primarily caused by some young beetle and moth larvae. Cereal leaf beetle windowpaning on wheat (left); European corn borer windowpaning on corn (right).

72 Structural Tissue Injury
Galls (may be on any tissue) Interference with transport Xylem injury Phloem injury Interference with structural support Shape/appearance impact Abnormal growth Shoot dieback

73 Galls Can occur on all tissues; leaves, stems/trunks, branches, roots, etc. Ash flower galls caused by a mite Galls on oak leaves from cynipid wasps Olive knot gall (caused by Pseudmomonas bacteria) on olive main trunk Western gall rust on Ponderosa pine branch Soybean roots with galls from root knot nematode (right) vs. healthy root (left).

74 Structural Tissue Injury -- Xylem
Tomato wilt is caused by fungi in the genus Fusarium which plugs xylem tissue preventing water/mineral transport. Many insects, such as the squash vine borer feed on xylem tissue.

75 Structural Tissue Injury -- Phloem
Bark beetle gallery (right): The adult Beetle lays a line of eggs along a gallery. The grubs hatch, eat phloem tissue until they mature. Phloem discoloration by San Jose scale on apple. Phloem discoloration and necrosis caused by spiroplasma infection.

76 Structural Tissue Injury – Interference with Structural Integrity
Stalk breakage (lodging) caused by fungal stalk rot (left) and European corn borer (right)

77 Structural Injury – Abnormal Growth
Many plant pathogens and some insects cause abnormal growth in plants. Common forms are called rosettes (above) and witch’s brooms (right).

78 Root Injury – Fibrous Roots
Varying degrees of corn rootworm injury (left) and resulting lodged plants (right) Phytophthora root rot on alfalfa (left); Fusarium root rot on soybean (right)

79 Root Injury – Storage Organs
Black rot on carrot (left), nematode injury to carrots (middle), carrot weevil injury (right)

80 Flower & Fruit Injury Apple scab on apple (right)
Codling moth in apple Left: Western flower thrips feeding injury on impatiens. Above: Bean pod mottle virus in soybeans (left) vs. uninfected beans (right)

81 Weed Effects Weed Groups Algae (aquatic systems)
Mosses/liverworts (turf & nurseries) Ferns/horsetails (pastureland, horticultural crops) Gymnosperms (rangeland, forests, long-term no-till systems) Angiosperms [monocotyledon & dicotyledon] (annuals, biennials, perennials)

82 Weed Impacts Competitive -- yield loss (quantity and quality)
Parasitic effects (cf Norris et al., p 23 – 24) Mechanical interference with farm implements Other incidental Seed contamination Land valuation Health & safety (hay fever, toxins, fire hazard)

83 Comparative Biology of Pests
Chapter 5 is divided into 3 principal segments Concepts in Pest Population Regulation Dissemination, Invasion, and Colonization Processes Pest Genetics

84 Comparative Biology of Pests
Concepts in Pest Population Regulation Reproduction Fecundity & Fertility Population Generation Time Longevity & Mortality Quiescence and Dormancy Heat Summation & Degree Days Molting & Metamorphosis Life Tables Basic Life Cycle Models

85 1. Reproduction -- “Vivipary”
In Plants Flowers are replaced by tiny plantlets which detach and grow into new plants. A form of asexual reproduction. These plants grow where there is a short growing season or where it is shady with few pollinators. This example is a wild onion Allium, where the flowers in the umbel inflorescence are replaced by vegetatively produced bulblets (little bulbs), and these bulblets sprout on the parent plant.

86 1. Insect Reproduction Oviparity -- Eggs deposited shortly after fertilization Ovoviviparity -- Female deposits a larva or nymph instead of an egg Viviparity -- Female feeds embryo after development has begun Paedogenesis -- Larvae give birth without becoming an adult Parthenogenesis -- Development without fertilization Polyembryony -- A single egg results in more than one individual

87 1. Reproduction Good for IPM Bad for IPM Sexual Asexual
Can manage resistance Mating disrupt. possible More plastic, better able to overcome tactics Asexual Strain/race geographically specific Can’t overcome effective controls 1. More inoc. (path & weed) 2. Faster popn. growth (all are reproductive) Note: Many serious species have both sexual & asexual periods or stages.

88 Individual and Population Development Time
Includes: Fecundity & Fertility Population Generation Time Cycles per Season – note terms in Norris et al., p. 99. Longevity and Mortality Affects management response time

89 Understand Generic Life Cycles
Many insects, some pathogens & nematodes, many mammals, summer annual weeds Some insects, some mammals, most winter annual weeds Many nematodes, multivoltine arthropods, polycyclic pathogens, small mammals. Weed seedbanks, some pathogens, cyst nematodes

90 Ecological Basis for Pest Management
Part I. Ecosystems and Pest Organisms

91 Ecological Basis for Pest Management
This is a 4-part unit: Part I -- Ecosystems & Pest Organisms Part II -- Ecology of Interactions of Pests Part III -- Ecosystem Biodiversity and IPM Part IV -- Applying Ecological Principles to Managing Pest Populations

92 Assignment for Friday, Feb. 6
Find an article (preferably online) that applies an ecological principle to pest management. Hand in one page containing a copy of the abstract of the article (with title and reference) and a brief description of the article and how an ecological principle was applied to a pest management problem. Identify which of the three ecological chapters from the text (Chap. 4, 6, or 7) your article most closely relates. We will group the articles by chapter and everyone will make a 2-3 minute presentation on his or her article.

93 Why Study Ecology in IPM?
History of IPM is a history of applied ecology Managing pests often relies on exploiting a pest’s ecological weaknesses. Alternatively, one may manage the ecology in order to make a crop less vulnerable to pests. Future of IPM lies in increasingly sophisticated ecological manipulations.

94 Ecosystems & Pest Organisms
Ecosystem Organization & Succession Definitions & Terminology Trophic Dynamics Limiting Resources & Competition

95 1. Ecosystem Organization & Succession
Species : "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (Ernst Mayr) Individual: A single organism (bacterium, weed, nematode, insect); not always obvious. Population : a collection of individuals of one species that exists in some defined geographical area Guild: a group of species that exploit the same resource in a similar manner Community: a group of populations occurring in the same geographical area Ecosystem: a community of living organisms and the abiotic framework that supports them. Agroecosystem – An ecosystem dominated by humans that typically has few common or major species (crops) and numerous rare or minor species (some of which are pests). Landscape: a cluster of interacting ecosystems

96 Landscape Ecology Crop Field Crop Field Crop Field Migration
Surrounding Ecosystem(s) Extinction

97 Landscape Ecology Involves multiple populations interacting in time and space between several different ecosystems. “Blinking Lights” Theory Often presented as an application of “Island Biogeography” -- Concentrates on local population/species extinctions.

98 Island Biogeography & Landscape Ecology
Wilson & MacArthur studied species extinction rates on small islands & found: When one species goes extinct, it is replaced so that there’s an equilibrium Replacement species is not necessarily the same as the extinct population…may be another from the same guild. Smaller islands have higher extinction rates than larger islands. Extinction rates increase with increasing distance between islands

99 Lesson: Size AND distance both affect species equilibrium
Which is better?

100 Lesson: Agroecosystems can fragment landscapes
Some species are stranded on their islands – increasing the chance that they might go locally extinct. Reduction in biodiversity is good for pests which thrive in the agroecosystem anyway. Note that reduction is in species diversity – includes number of spp. AND number of individuals.

101 Green Network Concept Maintain a network of contiguous patches & corridors that are not part of the agroecosystem. Specific Things to do can be found at: Enforcement/implementation?

102 Ecological Succession
An orderly, directional and therefore predictable process of development that involves changes in species structure and community processes over time. Results from a modification of the physical environment by the community and culminates in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass and symbiotic functions are maintained.

103 Natural tendency is to go to the right (cf Fig. 4-1 in text, p. 69)
Succession Sequence Natural tendency is to go to the right (cf Fig. 4-1 in text, p. 69) Agriculture typically keeps the ecosystem at this end.

104 Fig. 4-1, p. 69

105 Implications of Early Succession Systems
Trophic cycles are disrupted (adds to the biodiversity problem) Species good at invasion are favored Nutrient cycles are altered, biomass does not accumulate/cycle Energy flow is not webbed but, instead, directed toward one commodity Ecology “resets” each cropping season

106 2. Definitions and Terminology
Refer to pp. 71 – 72 in text. Notes on those definitions: Carnivores and Omnivores can be monophagous, oligophagous, or polyphagous Host organisms do not necessarily host parasites, herbivorous insects also feed on “hosts” Note distinction between parasites and parasitoids. Both can be internal or external (ectoparasites). Add “Pathogen – A microbial parasite that causes disease. Primary – attacks a healthy host, secondary – attacks an injured/weakened host.”

107 3. Trophic Dynamics Large subject that is central to pest injury and pest management. General Concepts Bottom-up versus top-down processes Basic food chains – note the diagrams Pathogens Weeds Webs (generalized and animal-based)

108 General Concepts of Trophic Dynamics
What is a trophic system?

109 Top-Down vs Bottom-up Trophic Systems
Top-Down – Producers (plants) limit the growth of primary consumers (herbivores) which limit the growth of primary carnivores & so on. Bottom-up – Top consumers limit growth at the next lowest level throughout the chain. Note that “limit” can be an economic effect, not necessarily an ecological one

110 Top-Down vs Bottom-Up Trophic System
With bottom-up control, increased production results in greater productivity at all trophic levels. With top-down control, consumers depress the trophic level on which they feed, and this indirectly increases the next lower trophic level. BottomUp Top Down

111 Grazer vs. Decomposer Systems
Grazer food chains begin with algae and plants and end in a carnivore. Decomposer chains are composed of waste and decomposing organisms such as fungi and bacteria

112 Food Webs Two or more trophic systems linked within a given ecosystem or landscape. Three main categories in agroecosystems: Animal-based (animal production systems) Above-ground, plant based (Crop Production Systems [CPS]) Soil food web in CPS’s The two CPS webs interact but are usually managed separately


114 Components Soil Food Web
Pest/weed biocontrol components in red Herbivores – Root feeders (arthropods, microbes) Pathogens – Microbes that attack underground organisms Shredders – Chew up organic matter, increasing surface area & decomposition rate Decomposers – Decompose organic matter Predators – Maintain stability of above populations

115 Limiting Resources & Competition
Populations can be limited in several ways Food & water Shelter/Reservoir Limitation can occur at any stage or time (e.g. overwintering) Effectiveness dependent on population ecology of individual pest. Life history strategy important part of that ecology.

116 r- vs. K-selected pests Characteristic r-Selected K-Selected
Reproductive Rate High Lower Longevity Short Long Competitive? No Yes Habitat Disturbed Stable General Strategy Invasive Domination Examples Annual weeds, pathogens, nematodes Perennials, mammals, some insects

117 Managing for one may help other
Characteristic r-Selected K-Selected Reproductive Rate High Lower Longevity Short Long Competitive? No Yes Habitat Disturbed Stable General Strategy Invasive Domination Examples Annual weeds, pathogens, nematodes Perennials, mammals, some insects

118 Interactions Between Pest Categories
Read Chapter 7, Ecosystem Biodiversity & IPM Fig. 6-1, p. 129 Note: No crop, management, beneficial species, or environmental effect. Biological interactions between pests only.

119 Interactions Between Pest Categories
Trophic Relationships Environmental (Habitat) Modification Result Mechanical Effects Response to Control Tactics Non-pesticide Pesticide-related “Interactions” may be: Pest-pest or pest-crop Measured in injury or damage

120 This subject excludes the direct effects of:
Interactions within pest categories (i.e. – pathogen – pathogen). But note that viruses, bacteria, fungi, & nematodes are different “categories” for Norris et al. Interactions between pests and their natural enemies

121 Reading Assignment for Monday
Check the Reading Assignments page Note the assignments that are covered in the exam Chapter 8, pp. 172 – 208

122 Direct vs. Indirect According to Brown
(Pest A + Pest B) -> Outcome Outcome may be biological or economic If Spp. A & B are present, outcome is realized Indirect: Pest A -> Affector -> Pest B -> Outcome “Affector” may be another pest, management action, environmental effect, etc. A & B & Affector must all be present for outcome to occur

123 Direct Interaction (A + B) -> Outcome
Four possibilities B Not Crop Pest Crop Pest 1 – Together, one (or both) pest 2 – A helps B 3 – A needs B 4 – A and/or B are worse together Not Crop Pest A Crop Pest

124 Examples by Category Green vegetable bug becomes a problem if provided with non-pest weeds. Ants tending aphids. Weeds as alternate hosts for pathogens. Overwintering hosts for aphids. 4. cf. item 4 on p. 136 (cutworms & chinch bugs) & item 5 on p. 137 of text.

125 Read these sections closely
Habitat Modification – Understand and be able to ‘compare & contrast’: Altered Resource Concentration Altered “Apparency” Microenvironment Alteration Interactions Due to Physical Phenomena Physical Damage to Host External Transport Internal Transport

126 Ecosystem and Biodiversity in IPM
Why did monocultures become so widespread? Can we expect monocultures to continue? If so, how can we make biodiversity relevant? At what spatial scale will this relevancy be realized (cf. p. 157).

127 Frequent Disadvantages of Biodiversity in CPS
Contrast with benefits noted on p. 158 Increasing plant diversity decreases density of marketable commodities Increased density/diversity of herbivores (cf. p. 136 – 137) Increased alternative hosts for pathogens Larger complex of species to be managed More complex production system/equipment needed to deal with mixed plantings Dilution of inputs (fertilizer, water) Decreases in commodity quality common (size, color, texture, etc.) Increased cost of commodity as a result of the above

128 Two Issues Must Be Resolved in a Biodiversity & IPM Discussion
A. Does the discussion concern the use of biodiversity in IPM or B. does it concern the use of IPM to maintain biodiversity? If A, emphasis is biocontrol, if B, emphasis is pesticide reduction A. Does the discussion concern managed biodiversity within crop fields or B. does it concern associated biodiversity in surrounding ecosystem? If A, emphasis is on tillage & cropping systems, if B, emphasis is on landscape ecology.

129 4. Applying Ecological Principles to Managing Pest Populations
IPM is an implementation vehicle for ecological knowledge. Degree of implementation varies, recall the IPM continuum. Many examples available, see reading for “A Whole Farm Approach to Managing Pests.” In particular, note the sidebars.

130 Implementation of Ecological Principles in IPM
Goal is preventative – keep pest populations from causing damage. Requires increased knowledge, observation, management – Increased costs not immediately offset Must return multiple benefits for adoption Usually helps, seldom adequate in itself

131 Two Approaches to Using Ecological Knowledge in IPM
Ecologically-Based Pest Management (EBPM). Established in the NAS book of the same name. Farmscaping – Mostly for biological control. Widely used in organic production systems

132 Ecologically—Based Pest Management
Basic Ideas: Refocus pest management on maintaining ecological balance Change management emphasis from individual species/components to processes, interactions between multiple species 3 Basic Principles Safety Durability Profitability

133 EBPM Status Much research is funded annually
Profitability issues remain, EBPM systems often not as profitable or are too risky compared to existing IPM systems EBPM generally relies on collective efforts (e.g. cooperatives, public oversight, etc.) which have yet to be accepted on a wide scale.

134 Farmscaping The practice of designing and maintaining habitats that attract and support beneficial organisms, used to improve crop pollination and to control pest species. Emphasis on landscape ecology for targeted objectives. Many examples are available. Here are a few.

135 Many similar themes along these lines
Here’s a small sample. Follow the links to read a little about each one & get the idea. Permaculture Biointensive Pest Management Regenerative Agriculture Biodynamic Agriculture

136 Notes on First Hour Exam
Scheduled for Monday, Feb. 23 Covers everything through this point Chapters 1 – 7 in text All assigned reading Lecture notes Be sure that you can do the exercises Structure will be short answer (~2/3 of grade), longer answer (most of the rest). Might be some matching. Note that the course has been re-organized since last time so old exams are helpful only for structure. Exam starts promptly at 8:00 & papers are collected at 8:50.

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