Presentation on theme: "Pest Management Pesticide Safety Education Program MSU Extension."— Presentation transcript:
Pest Management Pesticide Safety Education Program MSU Extension
Types of Pests Weeds Invertebrates (insects, mites, ticks, spiders, snails, and slugs) Pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes) Vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and rodents)
Pest Classifications Key Pest –Causes major damage on a regular basis. Occasional Pest –Causes damage on a irregular basis. Usually as a result of weather, environment, or human activity. Secondary Pest –Occurs as a result of action taken to control primary pest.
Pest Management Methods Many pest management methods including: –Regulatory –Cultural –Biological –Genetic –Chemical
Regulatory Using legal means to control pests. Generally for exotic pests that are not native. –Quarantines –Eradication –Example in Montana: Japanese Beetle
Cultural Altering the insects environment to disrupt the lifecycle of the pest. –Mowing, rotational strategies, tillage, fire, or cover crops
Biological Manipulation of one organism to control another organism. Using pathogens, vertebrates, plants, or insects to control other pests. –Example in Montana: Flea beetles to control leafy spurge.
Genetic Usually a preventative technique. Plants or animals can be bred or selected to be resistant to certain pest problems. –Example in Montana: Resistant wheat varieties for wheat stem sawfly.
Chemical Are any naturally derived or synthetic material that is applied to: –kill –attract –repel –regulate –interrupt the growth and mating of pests –regulate growth.
Synthetic Chemical Management began around WWII with the use of: DDT Some Problems persisted with DDT. What were they?
One other problem from over using Chemical Sprays: RESISTANCE! Zero Damage Concept (Where no damage was acceptable) –Failed –Resulted in Spray, spray, and spray with loss in control Problems –Wasted money when not economic Resulted in Resistance!!
Resistance Occurs when there is an ability of a pest to tolerate a pesticide that once controlled it. Can be managed through integrated pest management.
Other Problems with Dependence on Chemical Management Increasing levels of chemical output Chemicals persist in environment Non-target impact Public concern
Integrated Pest Management –Regulatory (Quarantines) –Cultural (Planting dates, harvest dates etc..) –Biological (Lady beetles, lacewings) –Resistance (WSS resistant winter wheat) –Gene Manipulation –Mechanical Control (Fly swatter or burning) –Chemical
Identify and Monitor Pest: To understand which IPM approach to use! Must monitor the insect population –Relative insect measuring estimates Sweep net samples –Absolute insect measuring estimate Insects per unit area (tiller, plant, sq ft) Trapping or emergence cages –Get an idea of insects per unit GET OUT INTO FIELD!!
Assess Potential Impacts Usually by comparing your densities or pest damage to economic thresholds or economic injury levels which are previously established. –Available from MSU Extension.
Economic Thresholds Number of pests per unit area (population density) at which management methods should be employed to prevent the pest from reaching the economic injury level.
Economic Injury Level Lowest population that will cause economic damage. When a pest reaches the economic threshold control measures should be employed to prevent populations from reaching the Economic Injury Level.
Economic Threshold takes into account many factors. Injury Level = C = the cost of management per unit area V = market value per unit area I = injury amount caused per pest D = the damage per injury amount K = the reduction in pest attack by control C VIDK
Choose your management option (Develop and evaluate your management option) Do you wish to prevent (genetic ‘resistance’, cultural ‘plant certain varieties’) Do you wish to suppress your pest population (chemical, biological) Do you wish to eradicate (chemical, genetic) –Very expensive generally and usually unsuccessful.
Implement the plan Don’t reinvent wheel Talk to your neighbors, extension personnel, and consultants. Implement plan Reassess periodically –Make notes of future pest populations, methods which work, and methods which do not.
Example Scenario: What do you do if you want to use IPM?
Inspect the damage? Do not guess. Get into the field and inspect. You find the Russian Wheat Aphid. Contact MSU Extension if you cannot identify.
Cross-reference the damage with the insect found: RWA damage Leaves white or purple streaks Tightly rolled leaves – trap leaves or head
Contact MSU Extension for your Monitoring Approach MSU Extension indicates the economic threshold to be: –Fall - Any growth stage (10-20% infested plants) –Spring Regrowth to early boot (5-10% infested plants) Early boot to flowering (10-20% infested tillers) After flowering (More than 20% infested tillers)
Monitor You assess your plants and find 35% infested plants with RWA. APPLY A MANAGEMENT PLAN BASED ON YOUR DENSITY AND THRESHOLD! –Only 1 management tactic will save your field at this point (consult MSU). Chemicals
Which Chemical? Consult MSU or other Ag Consultants -MSU would recommend Warrior at the 3.8 oz / acre rate or Lorsban 4E based on previous field trials. -Always read the product label