# Multi-stage Amplifiers

## Presentation on theme: "Multi-stage Amplifiers"— Presentation transcript:

Multi-stage Amplifiers
Single stage limitations Multi-stage amplifiers Feedback

Single Stage Amplifier Limitations
High gain Þ high gm and RC High rIN Þ low gm Low rOUT Þ low RC

Simple 2 Stage Amplifier
To increase the gain, use two amplifiers instead of one. Gain is not just the product of the individual gains though Input and output impedances must be accounted for

Equivalent Circuit

Coupling In the simple 2 stage design, the stages are linked by coupling capacitors This means that the biasing networks for each stage can be designed independently It also means that d.c. operation is impossible To do this: The capacitors must go Each stage supplies the bias current for the following stage

Differential Input 2 Stage Amplifier
BAD DESIGN! Good points Q1 and Q2 form a standard differential amplifier RC1 forms the collector resistor for Q2 and provides base bias current for Q3 Q3 forms a common-emitter amplifier Bad point vOUT can’t go below 0V IB3

Using PNP Transistors 0.5 V 0.5 V Analysis of PNP based circuit is almost identical to NPN Only real difference is that the currents in a PNP transistor all flow in the opposite direction

Practical Two Stage Amplifier
Q3 and RC2 form a common emitter amplifier again Base bias current for Q3 is provided by Q2 collector Output voltage can vary almost right up to ±VS Multi-stage amplifiers are usually made up from alternating NPN and PNP stages

Example – 1. Quiescent Conditions
With vIN = 0, we know that: 0.5 V

Example – 2. Differential Stage

Example – 3. Common Emitter

Example – 4. Overall Response

Predictability and Distortion
Problems IC3 IC3 depends on current gain of Q3 This is unpredictable Therefore, gain and quiescent vOUT are also unpredictable Linearity To get near the maximum possible output, amplifier goes into the non-linear region

Using Feedback In exactly the same way as with the operational amplifier, non-ideal properties of the multi-stage amplifier can be compensated for using negative feedback. E.g. Gain can be made predictable Quiescent output level can be corrected (offset voltage removed) Frequency response extended (constant gain-bandwidth product) Explore these ideas during lab session 3.

Transistors vs. Op-Amps
Operational Amplifiers Very simple to use – easy calculations Near ideal properties Transistors Better frequency response Lower noise

Today’s Summary Multi-stage amplifiers can be considered as many separate amplifiers connected together Use of the equivalent circuits for the amplifiers eases analysis Direct coupling enables low-frequency use Negative feedback can improve linearity and bandwidth

2B1 Analogue Electronics Summary
Practical Op-Amp Design How negative feedback works GB Product, Slew Rate, Saturation etc. Non-Linear Op-Amp Applications Comparators, Schmitt Triggers, Precision Rectifiers Transistor Amplifiers Common Emitter Amplifier Differential Amplifier Multi-stage amplifiers Design and analysis of all the above