2 Group DefinedTwo or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.
3 Need for Group formation SecurityStatusSelf esteemAffiliationPower/synergyGoal achievement
4 Types of groups Formal group Informal group Command group Task group Interest groupFriendship groupCoalition
5 Stages of group development FormingStormingNormingPerformingAdjourning
6 Forming Characteristics Uncertainty about group’s purpose, structure and leadership.Members determine what type of behaviours are acceptable.
7 Storming Characteristics Intra-group conflict Conflict over who will control the groupA clear hierarchy of leadership is developed.
8 Norming Characteristics Close relationships develop. Group demonstrates cohesiveness.Correct behaviours are defined.
9 Performing Characteristics Structure is fully functional and accepted. Group moves from a position of understanding each other to performing the task.
10 Adjourning Characteristics Group prepares for disbandment Attention is diverted towards wrapping up all the activities.
11 Theory of propinquityIndividuals affiliate with one another because of geographical proximity.
12 George Homan’s theoryThe more activities persons share, the more numerous will be their interactions and stronger will be their sentiments.
13 Newcomb’s Balance theory Persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly relevant objects and goals. Once this relationship is formed, participants will strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and common attitudes. If the balance cannot be made, the relationship dissolves.
14 Exchange theoryA minimum positive level of an outcome must exist in order for affiliation / attraction to take place.Reward > Cost of outcome
15 Punctuated equilibrium model Groups form in first phase in which a target is set which cannot be easily changed due to inertia. At some midpoint, second phase begins. At this, group members suddenly realise that if they are not going to change their tactics, groups goals will not be accomplished.
16 Group propertiesRolesNormsStatusSizeCohesiveness
17 Role Role identity Role perception Role expectation Role conflict Attitudes and behaviours that are consistent with a roleHow a person is supposed to act in a given situation?How others believe a person should act in a given situation?A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations