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Presentation on theme: "GROUP DYNAMICS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Group Defined Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.

3 Need for Group formation
Security Status Self esteem Affiliation Power/synergy Goal achievement

4 Types of groups Formal group Informal group Command group Task group
Interest group Friendship group Coalition

5 Stages of group development
Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

6 Forming Characteristics
Uncertainty about group’s purpose, structure and leadership. Members determine what type of behaviours are acceptable.

7 Storming Characteristics Intra-group conflict
Conflict over who will control the group A clear hierarchy of leadership is developed.

8 Norming Characteristics Close relationships develop.
Group demonstrates cohesiveness. Correct behaviours are defined.

9 Performing Characteristics Structure is fully functional and accepted.
Group moves from a position of understanding each other to performing the task.

10 Adjourning Characteristics Group prepares for disbandment
Attention is diverted towards wrapping up all the activities.

11 Theory of propinquity Individuals affiliate with one another because of geographical proximity.

12 George Homan’s theory The more activities persons share, the more numerous will be their interactions and stronger will be their sentiments.

13 Newcomb’s Balance theory
Persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly relevant objects and goals. Once this relationship is formed, participants will strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and common attitudes. If the balance cannot be made, the relationship dissolves.

14 Exchange theory A minimum positive level of an outcome must exist in order for affiliation / attraction to take place. Reward > Cost of outcome

15 Punctuated equilibrium model
Groups form in first phase in which a target is set which cannot be easily changed due to inertia. At some midpoint, second phase begins. At this, group members suddenly realise that if they are not going to change their tactics, groups goals will not be accomplished.

16 Group properties Roles Norms Status Size Cohesiveness

17 Role Role identity Role perception Role expectation Role conflict
Attitudes and behaviours that are consistent with a role How a person is supposed to act in a given situation? How others believe a person should act in a given situation? A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations

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