4 - In Spanish the perfect tense is used in a similar way - In English, we use the perfect tense (have, has, or their shortened form ‘ve and ‘s followed by a past participle such as spoken, eaten, lived, been) to talk about what has or hasn’t happened today, this week, this year or in our lives up to now.- In Spanish the perfect tense is used in a similar wayHe terminado el libroI’ve finished the bookNunca ha estado en BoliviaHe’s never been to BoliviaYa se han idoThey’ve already left
5 Forming the Perfect Tense As in English, the perfect tense in Spanish has two parts to it. These are:the present tense of the verb haber (meaning to have).a part of the main verb called the past participle.
7 To form the past participle of regular –ar verbs, take off the –ar ending of the infinitive and add –ado hablar (to speak) - hablado (speaking)To form the past participle of regular –er or –ir verbs, take off the –er or –ir ending of the infinitive and add –idocomer (to eat) - comido (eaten)vivir (to live) - vivido (lived)
8 The Prefect tense of some regular verbs The following table shows how you can combine the present tense of haber with the past participle of any verb to form the perfect tense.Present of haberPast participleyohehabladotúhastrabajadoél/ellahacomidonosotroshemosvendidovosotroshabéisvividoellos/ellashandecidido
9 Note!!You should not confuse haber with tener. Even though they both mean to have, haber is only used for forming tenses and in certain impersonal expressions such as hay and había meaning there is, there are, there was, there were and so on.
11 Some past participles are irregular Some past participles are irregular. There aren’t too many, so try to learn them.abrir (to open) - abierto (opened)cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered)decir (to say) - dicho (said)escribir (to write) - escrito (written)freír (to fry) - frito (fried)hacer (to do) - hecho (done)morir (to die) - muerto (died)oír (to listen) - oído (heard)poner (to put) - puesto (put)
12 Reflexive verbs in the perfect tense The perfect tense of reflexive verbs is formed in the same way as for ordinary verbs. The reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se) come before he, has, ha, and so on. The table on the next page shows the perfect tense of lavarse in full.
13 yo me he lavado tú te has él/ella se ha nosotros nos hemos vosotros os Subject pronounReflexive pronounPresent tense of haberPast participlemeaningyomehelavadoI have washedtútehasYou have washedél/ellasehaHe/she has washednosotrosnoshemosWe have washedvosotrososhabéisellos/ellashanThey have washed
14 Don’t use the perfect tense with desde, desde hace and hace…que when talking about how long something has been going on for. Use the present tense instead.Esta enferma desde juliohe has been ill since julyHace mucho tiempo que salen juntosThey have been going out together for a long time.
15 Key pointsThe spanish perfect tense is formed using the present tense of haber and a past participle.In spanish the perfect tense is used very much as it is in English.