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Presentation on theme: "NATURALISM."— Presentation transcript:


2 NATURALISM Meaning of Naturalism
Naturalism means belief in nature. It advocates return to Nature. According to W.E. Hocking, “Naturalism is a type of metaphysics which takes Nature as the whole of reality”. The philosophy of Naturalism excludes whatever is supernatural or other worldly. Even life is a part of the scheme of nature. This philosophy believes that “everything comes from nature and returns to nature.” 2

3 Naturalism in Education
Naturalism appeared as a revolt against formalism and stereotyped system of education. In the words of Adams, “Naturalism is a term loosely applied to systems of training that are not dependent on schools and books but on the manipulation of the actual life of the educand.” According to Ross, “Education is merely the fostering of natural development and true education takes place when the nature, power and inclinations of the child are allowed to develop freely with a minimum of guidance.” 3

4 Education must conform to the natural processes of growth and mental development.
Aristotle, Comte, Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau, Comenius, Huxley, Herbert Spencer, Tagore and T.P. Nunn are among those who thought of education along naturalistic philosophy. 4

5 Principles underlying Naturalistic Education
Natural Setting: The essence of naturalistic philosophy of education lies in providing natural environment to the child. It is in this setting that proper development of the child can take place. Child-Centredness: Naturalism gives central position to the child. Accordingly, the teacher should understand child psychology and guide the educand according to his needs and attitudes. Children should be treated as children and not as miniature adults. 5

6 Maximum freedom to the child: Freedom is the watchword of naturalistic education. It is through freedom that the child-growth takes a natural direction. Children should have a free choice of activities to gain first-hand experiences. Happiness and Healthy Mood: Happiness and healthy mood go hand in hand. Happy childhood is an essential factor in healthy growth. Naturalism believes that education should generate happiness and healthy mood for the growing child. 6

7 Senses – the Gateways of Knowledge: Senses are the gateways of knowledge. For effective learning, adequate sensory experiences should be provided to the child. Instincts – the basis of education: Naturalistic education regards instincts as the basis of all education. The teacher should fully exploit child’s instincts and try to modify this behaviour. It is through education that the child’s animal behaviour should be transformed into human behaviour. 7

8 Aims of Education in Naturalism
Self Expression: Self expression, not self realization is an important aim of naturalistic education. Self-Preservation: Education should help the child in self-preservation. It includes self health along with healthy environment. Fullest Development: Naturalism believes that the chief aim of education is the fullest development of the child. Survival of the Individual: Naturalism believes that the fittest alone should survive. Education must equip the child to struggle to exist. 8

9 Economic Efficiency: Naturalism believes that education should be geared to the fulfillment of economic needs of the child. Sublimation of Instincts: Education should aim at the redirection and sublimation of child’s instincts. Maintenance of Social and Political relations: Naturalist educators believe through education the rate of development should increase so that social and political justice is maintained. 9

10 Adjustment with surrounding: Education should enable an individual to live in harmony with his surroundings. This alone will ensure his health and happiness. Autonomous development of individuality: Education regards the autonomous development of individuality as an important goal of education. Rousseau and T.P. Nunn are the main exponents of this view.. Enjoyment of Leisure: It occupies an important place in the scheme of education. As such happiness of leisure should be the lasting experience. 10

11 Rousseau on Education Rousseau says that . . .
education aims at the inner faculties, capacities and powers of the child aim of education is not preparation for life, but participation in it Each stage through which a child passes has a specific aim of education 11

12 Stage Stage Stage 1st to gain knowledge and all the wants and needs of a child are to be fulfilled 2nd to provide the child with the strength that the child lacks of the ability of being free 3rd to enable the child to acquire useful knowledge which would satisfy the child’s wants

13 Naturalism and the Learner
Individual is to be given unrestricted freedom and only then his harmonious development will take place. The checks on the child are also to be natural. The naturalists advocate discipline by natural consequences. A danger that the child may harm himself and cause worry to the parents. 13

14 Naturalism and the Curriculum
Child centred according to the present and future needs of the child Curriculum divided under two stages i. Earlier stage : Sensory training ii. Later stage : Subjects are include in the curriculum through activities and occupations like physical sciences, language, mathematics, manual work, trade, moral education, etc. 14

15 Methodology of Teaching Learning by doing and interaction with Nature
Observation, Play-way, Dalton Plan Heuristic, Montessori, Kindergarten methods Observation of nature encouraged 15

16 Discipline and Naturalism
Supporting positive and progressive discipline Discipline by natural consequences Maximum freedom to the child 16

17 Naturalism and the Teacher
Extreme naturalists ignore teacher; because teacher will interfere with the development of a child. If the teacher is to be there, let him design situations which help in the inculcation of right type of habits in the children. As a director of activity, the teacher should not overdo his role or overact his role. 17

18 Merits of Naturalism Clear formation of the psychological and scientific conception of education Freedom for child from tyranny and rigidity, interference and strict discipline Spontaneous self-activity of the child New psychological methods in educations Self-expression, follow nature, auto education, play- way, self-discipline and non-interference, etc. The great strength of Naturalism is its simplicity. It does not complicate the perception of existence by using abstract concepts. 18

19 Demerits of Naturalism
It is based on one- sided psychology. Irrespective of their individual differences, capacities and temperament Direct experiences cannot be provided all the time; expensive and something impossible It gives no place to the spiritual values. Some of the principles envisaged by naturalism are not possible to be practiced in the existing situations. Ross rightly opines ‘it is in educational ideals, not in methods that naturalism fails to satisfy.’ 19

20 Conclusion Thus, Naturalism is naturo-centric. According to this philosophy only the material universe or nature alone is real. All things have originated from matter and all are ultimately to be reduced to that. Matter is the stuff with which the universe has been built up. 20

21 Thank You !

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