2 Content What is Research Design? Types of Research Design 1. Cross-sectional2. Longitudinal3. Case study4. Comparative
3 Research Design A plan that specifies the sources of information usedtypes of information usedA strategy specifying which approach will be used forgathering dataanalysing data.Describes the constraintstime budgetcost budget
4 Research Design (i) What is the study about? (ii) Why is the study being made?(iii) Where will the study be carried out?(iv) What type of data is required?(v) Where can the required data be found?(vi) What periods of time will the study include?(vii) What will be the sample design?(viii) What techniques of data collection will be used?(ix) How will the data be analysed?
5 Parts of the Research Design Process Overall research design can be split into following parts:(a) the sampling designdeals with the method of selecting items to be investigatede.g. Random or non-random(b) the observational designthe conditions under which the investigation is be made;e.g. Official data, survey data, case study
6 Parts of the Research Design Process (c) the statistical designhow many items are to be observedhow will information and data be analysed
7 Types of Research Design 1. Cross-sectional2. Longitudinal3. Case study4. ComparativeWe will now look at these in more detail
8 1. Cross-sectional research design Collection of data on more than one caseData is collected at a single point in timeE.g. a day , month yearAt least two variables collectedBut usually many moreThen examine to detect patterns of association.
9 1. Cross-sectional Research Design Collecting several pieces of data from various cases at a single point in timeHere the case could be a countries, a regions, people, businesses etc.e.g. study of shopping choices of students on a day in November99
10 Single Survey Research Design Typical example of cross-sectional designCollection of data on more than one caseData mainly collected by questionnaire or structured interviewData collected at a single point in timeAt least two variables collectedThen examine to detect patterns of association.Key Question: What determines the shopping habits of students?
11 2. Longitudinal Research Design Survey of the same sample on more than one occasionOften referred to as panel or cohort studiesTaking our student shopping exampleStudy of shopping choices of students on one day in November, December, January, February etcKey Questions: Do shopping habits of student change over time and if so why?1111
12 2. Longitudinal Research Design Collecting data on the same cases at various points in timeEg. surveying the same group of people year after year1212
13 2. Issues with Longitudinal Research Attrition, because people die, or move home, or withdraw from the study.Knowing when is the right time for the next wave of data collection.Should you wait 6 months, year, 5 years?The first round may have been badly thought out, which leaves the later rounds in a bit of a mess.
14 3. Case study design Detailed and intensive analysis of one case e.g. a single community, school, family, person, event, or organizationOften involves qualitative researchSoft data?Example: What influences the subject choices of students at the University in 2014?Detailed interviews with lecturers, students, parents, employers1414
15 3. Issues with Case-Study Research Biggest issue concerns external validityAre the factors that determine student subject choice in one University the same in another University? We don’t know (we only studied one)Some argue that point of this research is to examine particular casesNot really concerned with making general findings.Cases may be extended longitudinallyGo back and study the same, school, family, person the following year.
16 4. Comparative Research Design Using the case study methodsto compare two or more meaningfully contrasting casesCan be qualitative or quantitativeOften cross-cultural comparisonse.g. study of the shopping habits of students in Prague and in Vienna1616
17 4. Comparative Research Design PragueViennaRepeating a cross sectional study with various different groups at the same time1717
18 Research Design in Summary Quantitative and qualitative research can be executed using any of these research designsSurvey research is the most typical form for quantitative research1818
19 Research Design in Summary Good Research Design must containa clear statement of the research problem;procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information;the population to be studied;methods to be used in processing and analysing data.