Presentation on theme: "EFL Students’ Awareness of Learning Strategies in Web-based Listening Modules Wichian Sunitham Chiang Mai University A study based on a web-based listening."— Presentation transcript:
EFL Students’ Awareness of Learning Strategies in Web-based Listening Modules Wichian Sunitham Chiang Mai University A study based on a web-based listening module project for Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand (2006-2008)
Background of Research Study CMU Level National Level Works cited Background of Research Study Application of technology and learning autonomy emphasized in national EFL curriculum EFL working group (Consortium) from many Thai universities formed to work on web-based projects pronunciation (Mahidol University), Vocabulary (Ubonratchathani University, Ubonratchathani), Grammar (Dhurakitpundit University, Bangkok) Reading (King Mongkut University of Technology, Bangkok), and Listening (Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai)
Background of Research Study CMU Level Learning strategies & web-based learning modules offered in many integrated foundation courses at CMU Two new skill-based foundation courses constructed, English 001101 (Listening & Speaking) and English 001102 (Reading & Writing), and implemented in 2009 Listening Speaking Reading English 001102 English 001101 1.Learning strategies not explicitly taught but implicitly introduced by individual instructors 2.English Self Access Language Learning still administered though less ‘serious’ than before
Background of Research Study CMU Level Two new skill-based foundation courses constructed, English 001101 (Listening & Speaking) and English 001102 (Reading & Writing), and implemented in 2009 Listening Speaking Reading English 001102 English 001101 1.Learning strategies not explicitly taught but implicitly introduced by individual instructors
Background of Research Study CMU Level - Researcher assigned to teach 38 students from School of Media Arts in Listening & Speaking - Students are… first-year IT management majors a group consisting of 20 % females & 80 % males females males a group of different levels of proficiency, but generally intermediate a group with varied amounts of language exposure (some living in overseas countries, some from remote areas where English did not receive attention in schools) a group with different problems regarding ESL listening contexts
Works cited Background of Research Study - WorldLink (OUP) English 001101 (Coursebook & Workbook for CMU students from 2009 academic year onwards) - Designed to accommodate a combination of many different modern approaches focusing on role of listening 1.Communicative approach (real-life aspects of listening & speaking, vocabulary & grammar/patterns given/taught before as input for listening & communicating in English, socio-cultural aspects emphasized) 2. Task-based approach (learners expected to produce two main group speaking tasks around the situations taught) 3.Discrete-item approach (segmental & suprasegmental aspects of spoken texts/words along with their contextualization emphasized)
Works cited Background of Research Study CHE LISTENING MODULES (Wichian’s report in 2008 at this CALL Workshop) - Self-study package focusing on listening from both video and audio clips - Listening strategies presented in all 15 lessons with Lessons 5, 10, and 15 serving as review lessons of strategies - All cognitive listening strategies
Works cited - Flowerdew & Miller (2005: 72) – the integration of listening strategies into language lessons can make the learners aware of how to develop better listening habits. - Vandegrift (1997: 392-4) A summary of listening strategies from a think-aloud procedure from French learners listening to various texts in L2 The strategies divided into Metacognitive (planning, monitoring, and evaluation), Cognitive (inferencing, elaboration, summarization, translation, transfer, repetition, resourcing, grouping, note- taking, deduction-induction, substitution), and Socioaffective strategies (Questioning for clarification, cooperation, lowering anxiety, self-encouragement, taking emotional temperature)
Wors cited Miller (2001) – stages of a listening lesson with a strategy-based approach in a course for first-year Engineering students at a university in Hong Kong - Listening target tasks developed – listening to segments of authentic spoken text on engineering topic - Pedagogical tasks – exercises & activities enabling students to complete listening target tasks - Making learners aware of the strategies necessary for completing the tasks & how they might develop their language- learning strategies Strategies
Works cited Background of Research Study Flowerdew & Miller (2005: 165-83) – review of the technological support used to help students develop their listening skills – radio, audiotapes, television, video, and computers - Each type of technology provides opportunities for students to explore their ranges of listening strategies and in some cases develop new strategies. O----------------------------------------- O - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - O - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - O - - - - - - - - - - - - O--------------------- Technology “The teachers need to be prepared to exploit old and new technologies in many different ways to meet the changing needs of their students.” (P.182 )
Research Questions 2. Do EFL learners apply the listening strategies when engaging themselves in the self-learning listening tasks? If yes, how do they do that? 1. Within self-study learning context, are EFL learners aware of the listening strategies given in the web-based listening modules? If yes, how do they do that? 3. Is there any significant difference between the learners with high language ability and those with low language ability in terms of strategies’ awareness and the use of strategies for listening tasks?
Subjects 38 Thai EFL learners who are first-year Media Arts (IT Management) majors enrolling in English listening & speaking course at CMU. Their proficiency ranging from lower intermediate to intermediate with different English learning backgrounds, thus having different abilities in listening 7 lessons on Web-based listening modules (self-learning package – hereafter SLP) Tools 7 Quizzes to check if the learners have studied SLP Retrospective interview at the end of semester to use information to check against their quiz answers
The Research Tools / Procedures The Research Tools Procedures 1 7 SLP lessons a. distributed to learner subjects at beginning of term b. each lesson assigned with 1-2 week intervals c. contents organized in this pattern [pre- listening audio dialogues warm-up activities vocabulary listening strategies in focus video clips for listening post- listening audio dialogues additional audio dialogues/listening strategies] d. consisting of 6 different learning stragies 2 7 Quizzes a. administered at beginning of class on every Tuesday b. arranged in this format [5-6 questions on vocabulary (check ss’ learning) 2 questions on content of audio/video dialogues (check ss’ learning) 1 question on learning strategies (check ss’ attention on strategies) 3 Retrospective interview at semester end – problems in listening & what they did while learning SLP lessons (check if their correct answers on strategies ≠ guessing / check how they apply strategies)
List learner subjects who could get the strategy part correct from each quiz. List learner subjects who score on strategy part from 1-6 points. Check their score with the interview’s record. Analysis
Quizes1234567 No.of ss getting correct answer / total test takers 13/326 / 3113/ 32 8 / 3511 / 287/ 3529 / 34 Percentage (based on N of each quiz) 39.3919.3540.622.8639.292085.29 Findings Who shows awareness? How did they score? Points1-2 (low) 3-4 (moderate) 5 up (high) Nos of quiz takers 14 (41.18%) 16 (47.06%) 4 (11.76%) Looking from the above data, half of the learner subjects pay attention to the strategies in the SLP in low to moderate levels. Were they really aware of the strategies or did they pick up the answer choices at random?
Problems ss facing while listening - unable to catch/detect every word & dialogues too fast - unable to translate to Thai & not know meaning of words heard - unfamiliar accents / sounds / connected speech of NS - thinking of grammar while listening Common problems? Different directions from what most modern listening instructions emphasize listening strategies
C Learners’ attention on strategies presented in the SLP’s lessons Three types of answers that reflect… 1.Ignorance / Reject / Uncertainty / Doubt - Not sure what it is for - Don’t even notice - Don’t pay attention as only 1 question is asked in quiz - Listen to only words and/or video/audio files hecking on the strategies
Checking on the strategies 2.Reading without understanding - Read the strategies presented but not know what they are for - Read only some strategies for first few lessons or only 1 or 2 lessons Strategies
Checking on the strategies Reading & remembering the strategies - Noticed the strategies but called them using different names/terms o Objectives o Lessons o Listening techniques - Remembered key words from the strategies / what the strategies want to focus o Gist o Key words o Selective
Checking on the strategies What do these answers tell us? 1. Type 1 answers (Ignorance / Reject / Uncertainty / Doubt ) were given by a.78 % of low-score learners b.22 % of moderate-score learners c.0 % of high-score learners a b 2.Type 2 answers (Reading without understanding) were given by a.56 % of low-score learners b.34 % of moderate-score learners c.10 % of high-score learners 3.Type 3 answers (Reading & remembering the strategies) a.0 % of low-score learners b.11 % of moderate-score learners c.89 % of high-score learners b c
Checking on the strategies Did you (those who got high score on strategies) apply the strategies when engaging in the listening tasks? Some of the answers 1.Just listen and try to catch every word’s meaning 2.Listen and always look at the written scripts accompanying the listening clips 3.Not sure if they help 4.No 5.Don’t really know how to use them
Checking on the strategies What I have found Thai learners did not apply listening strategies they know while listening Thai learners just ignore listening strategies despite their being aware of their existence Thai learners did not know how to apply learning strategies
Observations - Thai learners do need supervision from the teachers concerning the application of listening strategies – explicit instruction of listening strategies needed What do these answers tell us? - Self-study learning package should be accompanied with close supervision from instructors – blended learning?? - Cooperative learning may help – group learning usually brings positive results on self study
Parameters not suitably controlled - Psychological factors – learners are worried about quiz scores than paying attention on strategies. - Questions in quiz focusing on vocabulary and listening contents rather than strategies. - Different backgrounds of learners may play a role. - Interview may be better done individually rather than in group.
Follow-up research studies Do EFL learners with high academic achievement really have awareness on listening strategies in the web-based self-access learning package & do they really apply them? How? (larger-scale data?) Can listening strategies be promoted with EFL learners with low academic achievement? How?