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AFTER THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Let us revisit the TERMS Rome imposed on the Carthaginian state in 201 BC at the end of the “War against Hannibal” 1.Carthage.

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Presentation on theme: "AFTER THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Let us revisit the TERMS Rome imposed on the Carthaginian state in 201 BC at the end of the “War against Hannibal” 1.Carthage."— Presentation transcript:

1 AFTER THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Let us revisit the TERMS Rome imposed on the Carthaginian state in 201 BC at the end of the “War against Hannibal” 1.Carthage was forced to give up ALL of its interests in the IBERIAN PENINSULA. 2.Carthage was forced to pay a war indemnity of 10,000 talents [300 tons] in silver. 3.Carthage’s navy was limited to 10 ships (so that the state could ward off pirates). 4.Carthage was forbidden to raise an army or engage in military activity without Rome’s permission. [The fourth term allowed Carthage’s neighbour, the kingdom of NUMIDIA (Rome’s ‘client’), to engage in low-level raiding of Carthaginian territory for decades]

2 The Period after the Second Punic War ROME ’ S EMPIRE ca 200 BC (immediately after the Second Punic War [218 – 201 BC])

3 1.Having ousted Carthage from the Iberian Peninsula and having added two new “provinces” (overseas possessions subject to taxation) to its empire a) HISPANIA CITERIOR (“Nearer Spain”) – for now no more than a narrow strip on the eastern side of the peninsula; and b) HISPANIA ULTERIOR (“Farther Spain”) – the south and south-east of Iberia…… 2.… the Roman state now became involved even more heavily in the Balkan Peninsula. 3.The young PHILIP V had brought MACEDON into conflict with Rome by siding with Hannibal.

4 4.Philip V had continued to assert his kingdom’s interests and had become involved in war a) with the kingdom of PERGAMUM, under the Attalid s (in western Asia Minor) ; and b) with RHODES (the territory of which extended to the mainland of Asia Minor). 5.Both were firm Roman allies. 6.Philip’s refusal to end hostilities against them provided Rome with the pretext to begin “the SECOND MACEDONIAN WAR” (200 – 197 BC ) [The “First Macedonian War” with Rome had been during the conflict with Carthage]

5 7.During the war the Roman state was allied with “the AETOLIAN LEAGUE” – a league of northern Greek city- states. 8. The war came to an end in 197 BC after Rome’s military victory at CYNOSCEPHALAE



8 9.The victory over MACEDONIA led to a peace treaty (“the Treaty of Flaminius”) in 197 BC with terms similar to those ending the wars with Carthage: a) Macedon had to surrender its fleet. b) Macedon was forced to withdraw to its ‘ancestral’ boundaries – abandoning all control over city-states in southern Greece, all control over Thrace, all control over Asia Minor. c) Macedon was forced to pay a huge war indemnity. 10. This effectively ended Macedon’s status as a major power – which had, of course, been Rome’s intention.

9 SELEUCID SYRIA 1.Rome now became embroiled with the Seleucid empire centred on SYRIA. 2. a) ANTIOCHUS III of Syria had formed an alliance with Macedon under Philip V in 203 BC. b) Together they had decided to attack and divide between them territories of the boy-king, of Egypt, PTOLEMY V. 3.a) Their agreement had seen Antiochus, for his part, attempting to control Egypt’s Ptolemaic interests in Asia Minor. b) This had led to conflict with Rome’s allies there: PERGAMUM and RHODES – and led to a clash of wills between ROME and Antiochus, exacerbated by the presence in the 190s of HANNIBAL at Antiochus’ court.


11 4. The resulting warfare (“the Syrian War”) between 192 and 188 BC (in which the “Aetolian League” parted from its association with Rome and supported Syria) included a Roman victory at MAGNESIA in 190 BC against ANTIOCHUS III and another treaty: a) Seleucid Syria had to surrender all its possessions in Asia Minor (which were given to Pergamum and Rhodes). b) It was forced to reduce its naval forces significantly. c) It had to pay a huge war indemnity.

12 5.There was now nothing to counter Roman influence in GREECE where the two leagues (“the AETOLIAN LEAGUE” and “the ACHAEAN LEAGUE”) were very much brought within the Roman sphere. MAGNESIA AETOLIAN LEAGUE ACHAEAN LEAGUE CARIA WAS PART OF GREATER RHODES PURPLE AREAS WERE EGYPTIAN

13 LATER WARFARE AGAINST MACEDON 1.Despite the restrictions imposed on Macedon by Rome in 197 BC, the son of Philip V, PERSEUS, tried to reassert the former power of his father’s kingdom and to pose as the champion of Greek independence. 2.This led to “the THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR” (171 – 168 BC ). 3.Again it ended with a Roman victory under Lucius Aemilius Paullus at PYDNA.

14 4. The result with the abolition of the Macedonian monarchy and the division of the former kingdom into FOUR REPUBLICS very much under Roman domination. 5.A. The impression one gets is that Rome a) wanted more and more to take on the role of policing’ the entire region but b) was unwilling, at the same time, to add to its administrative responsibilities by creating other “provinces” and establishing a permanent presence east of Italy. B. Rome had “commitments” enough in Spain.

15 6.The result, in practice, of what Rome was doing in the East generally in the 190s and immediately afterwards was to end the role that other powerful states had been playing in “controlling” the eastern Mediterranean. 7.In turn, this had contributed to greater instability. 8.And this had allowed such phenomena as piracy to increase. 9.a) It is not improbable that many leading senators were not, at this point, too unhappy about growing piracy. b) Piracy was an important source for the slaves who were more and more being used on their growing estates (a major development, inter alia, which we will be looking at).

16 10. Direct exploitation of Macedonian resources seems not to have been of prime importance, since we hear that the silver mines there were closed down. Macedon (continued) 1.The Roman approach in creating four ‘republics’ from the former kingdom of Macedonia worked for about two decades. 2. It came to an end, however, when a pretender to the Macedonian throne, Andriscus, emerged about 150 BC. 3. He had managed to rally support and forces in the four republics and defeat a Roman army in 149 BC. 4. He was soundly defeated in 148 BC and Rome moved to create an additional “province” – the province of MACEDONIA under direct Roman control.

17 5.Rome’s involvement in Greece (where Rome had been active only against those who had supported Macedonia) upset the “ACHAEAN LEAGUE” (city-states of southern Greece) which had long been allied with Rome. 6.a) In what they must have known would be a hopeless move, the members of the league rose up against Rome – because of what they saw as Roman high-handedness. b) Polybius blames demagogues in individual states for whipping up the people. 7.The uprising was quickly suppressed and the Senate instructed the consul, who had taken the command in 146 BC, to make an example of CORINTH – the leading city of “the ACHAEAN LEAGUE” by its TOTAL DESTRUCTION (the same year as the total destruction of CARTHAGE).

18 INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS IN ROME AFTER 200 BC 1.After the end of the Second Punic War, the political life of the Roman state was dominated by two trends for several decades: a) a conservative trend, with MARCUS PORCIUS CATO (Cato the Censor) playing a significant leadership role right down to his death in 149 BC ; and b) a liberal trend, embracing new ideas, with PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO (Scipio the Elder Africanus”) the victor over Hannibal, playing a leadership role until his death in 183 BC.

19 c) When he died, the baton of the “liberal cause” was taken up by other members of the SCIPIO family and eventually by SCIPIO THE YOUNGER (consul in 147 and 134 BC ), the natural son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus and adopted into the Scipio “family” by one of Scipio the Elder’s sons.

20 CATO THE ELDER (Marcus Porcius Cato) 234 – 149 BC Military tribune214 Quaestor204 Aedile199 Praetor198 Consul195 CENSOR184

21 younger Scipio on a signet ring from Capua 1. served at CANNAE in 216 2. Aedile 213 3. volunteered for Spain in 210 4. Consul (at 31) 205 5. Censor 199 6. served on commission to Carthage in 193 7.‘Leader of the Senate’ 8. Served with brother in Asia Minor in 190 [political career not outstanding but listened to because of his success against Hannibal] SCIPIO THE ELDER (Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus) 236 – 183 BC

22 2.The tension was always one between Cato’s solid ‘conservatism’ and Scipio the Elder’s more liberal approach to changing circumstances. 3.CATO argued continuously that old-time Roman morality, practices and traditions must be respected and that there should be no concessions to new “eastern” (Greek) influences and the growing fondnessis for luxury which were beginning to penetrate society as a result of Rome’s involvement in the eastern Mediterranean. 4.SCIPIO, his extended family, and his ‘circle’ were enthusiastically ‘philhellenic’, favoured Roman involvement in the Greek world, and resisted attempts to bring it to an end.


24 5.Perhaps the role for which CATO is best known to history is his constant insistence in the Senate that the CARTHAGINIAN STATE, despite being brought to its knees in 201 BC, continued to represent a threat to Rome. 6.We are told that he ended every speech in the Senate, no matter what the topic of debate, with a famous sentence (or something very similar): “Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam” (“Moreover it is my view that Carthage should be destroyed.”) [This is also reported as “Carthago delenda est”]

25 THE THIRD PUNIC WAR (149 – 146 BC) 1.One of the terms of the peace treaty ending the Second Punic War had seen Carthage agree not to raise an army or engage in military activity without Rome’s permission. 2. Again and again, Carthage’s immediate neighbour to its west, King MASSINISSA of NUMIDIA, took the opportunity to encroach upon Carthage’s territory - leading to constant disputes which needed to be resolved.




29 3. His claims were based on Rome’s recognition of his right (as a loyal [but recent] Roman ‘client king’) to his kingdom’s ‘ancestral lands’ – a very vague phrase. 4. Time and time again, these disputes over territory were subjected to arbitration but Roman commissioners either ruled in favour of Numidia or (more often, it seems) did not establish the rights and wrongs of the case and King Massinissa was, as a result, left in possession of territory he had seized.

30 5. a) SCIPIO the ELDER had been a member of such a commission in 193 BC. b) CATO was a member of such a commission in 157 BC when he was 77 and he was so amazed at the apparent prosperity of Carthage that he returned convinced that Rome’s future security depended on Carthage disappearing from the map. He is reported as standing in the Senate and producing from the folds of his toga some ripe figs which he said had been growing only three days earlier in Carthage. Was he stressing HOW CLOSE to Italy Carthage was or HOW PROSPEROUS Carthage was or BOTH?

31 6.The destruction of Rome’s old enemy became, after this, Cato’s constant refrain (as noted earlier). 7.In the Senate (which by now very much determined ‘foreign policy’) CATO was consistently opposed by P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum (the son of Scipio the Elder’s first cousin) who a) held a consulship in both 162 and in 155 BC (with a censorship between the two in 159 BC); b) advocated a more liberal attitude towards Carthage; and c) usually prevailed in debates. [Scipio the Younger was still too junior to play the leading role in opposition to Cato]

32 8.BUT in 151 BC MASSINISSA of Numidia launched yet another assault on territory which the Carthaginians considered theirs. 9.This time Carthage retaliated. 10.A military force of 25,000 was raised to repel the Numidians but was soundly defeated. 11.By now SCIPIO the YOUNGER, the adopted grandson of Scipio the Elder, was beginning to emerge as a political voice – so much so that, in 150 BC, Carthage appealed to him to act as mediator in this growing ‘crisis’.

33 12. But those of Cato’s view were in the ascendancy and saw Carthage’s act as an ‘act of war’, which did not have Rome’s permission, and as a violation of the ‘Treaty of 201 BC ’. 13. Carthage was informed that it must “satisfy the Roman People” to avoid war. 14. Despite the Carthaginians agreeing to various measures: e.g. a) to send 300 children of leading Carthaginian families to Rome as hostages; b) to hand over all their arms, etc. ……. 15. ……Rome then demanded that they abandon the city of Carthage (which would be razed) and move 10 miles inland from the sea.

34 16. This the Carthaginians refused to do and, in 149 BC, Rome declared war. 17. UTICA had already defected to Rome and Rome had already sent a force of perhaps 80,000 to the area to ensure Carthage took no action against its second city. The city of CARTHAGE UTICA

35 18. The Romans soon did what they could to lay siege to Carthage but things certainly did not always unfold in Rome’s favour: e.g. a) The consuls of 149 BC, setting out from Utica, were repelled by Carthaginian forces; b) A Roman fleet trying to maintain the siege fell victim to Carthaginian fire-ships which were released up-wind from them. c) Lucius Calpurnius Piso, one of the consuls for 148 BC, suffered a serious defeat at Nepheris (south of Carthage). d) Roman troops trapped in a ravine were only saved by the intervention of SCIPIO the YOUNGER who was serving militarily as a subordinate officer.

36 19. i) SCIPIO’s success gained him one of the consulships for 147 BC, although at the age of 38 he was ‘technically’ too young for the office and an exemption had had to be granted. ii) He was assigned, as consul, to North Africa without the normal drawing of lots. 20. It took a year of military activity to force Carthage to surrender. 21. a) Many Carthaginians had starved during the siege. b) Those not killed during the final assault were enslaved when the city fell (vividly described by Appian in his Punica).

37 c) On the orders of the Senate the city was razed and set on fire. 21. The land was probably ceremonially ‘ploughed under’ BUT it appears to be a totally modern myth that salt was sown in the furrows. 22. SCIPIO the YOUNGER, upon his return to Rome, gained the agmen “AFRICANUS” – like his adoptive grandfather, SCIPIO the ELDER, before him. 23. Carthage’s territory was declared a new Roman “province” to be called “AFRICA” (roughly modern Tunisia).

38 APPIAN (fl. AD 140) has left us a description of the final fall of the city of Carthage in his PUNICA (based on Polybius)

39 24. The speed with which the rich Carthaginian lands became one of the major “bread baskets” of the city of Rome (which may, by now, have had a population of 400,000) strongly suggests that acquisition of fertile agricultural land was a motivating factor in Rome’s initiating the “Third Punic War” – along with a degree of irrationality. NOTE: Neither CATO nor MASSINISSA of NUMIDIA lived to see the destruction of Carthage, both dying in 149 BC at the beginning of the war.

40 25. Whether there is a connection between Rome’s TOTAL destruction of CARTHAGE in 146 BC and Rome’s TOTAL destruction of CORINTH in the same year – both acts approved by the Senate but undertaken by Rome’s military commanders - is a matter of debate. 26. One modern explanation for Rome’s more violent treatment of those who opposed it is that the increase in the number of positions in the state – especially in the praetorships, had meant that those who reached the consulship [and there were still only two consulships] tended to be more aggressive in outlook and were more likely to wrap up operations with greater “drama”.

41 THE ROMAN PROVINCE OF “AFRICA” 1.By 146 BC Rome had SEVEN “provinces”: SICILY (241), SARDINIA- CORSICA (238), NEARER SPAIN (197), FARTHER SPAIN (197), MACEDONIA (with Epirus) 146, ACHAEA (GREECE) (146), AFRICA (146). 2.Even before the last three were formally organized for the collection of direct annual taxes, enough income appears to have been coming into the coffers of the Roman state for Roman citizens, in 167 BC, to be given an exemption from direct taxation for three and a half centuries.

42 1.Expansion continued apace in the Iberian peninsula. 2.“ASIA” became a ‘province’ by bequest in 133 BC. 3.Southern Gaul was not constituted a ‘province’ until the late 2 nd century. ROME’S EMPIRE AFTER THE ACQUISITION OF “AFRICA” IN 146 BC AND BY ca 100 BC

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