Presentation on theme: "Consequences of school bullying and violence"— Presentation transcript:
1Consequences of school bullying and violence Christina SalmivalliUniversity of Turku, Finland
2It is evident that children exposed to systematic victimization by their peers suffer from adjustment problemsVictimization is concurrently associated with depression, anxiety, low global and social self-concept, suicidal ideation, school avoidance (Card, 2003; Hawker & Boulton, 2000)…Strongest effect sizes for internalizing problems, BUT victimization is also associated with externalizing problemsVictimization is even related to health problems (Rigby, 2001)Several interpersonal correlates such as rejection, low number of friends and low friendship qualityThe bullies, and especially bully-victims, suffer from adjustment problems as well
3Are the associations between victimization and maladjustment only concurrent, or does victimization longitudinally predict adjustment problems?
4OVERALL:Studies investigating the consequences of victimization while controlling for intitial levels in the variables of interest are still surprisingly rare
5Many of the concurrent correlates of victimization seem to be both antecedents and consequences of itA vicious cycle by which children get trapped in the role of continued victimizationHOWEVER:Internalizing problems, such as depression, seem to increase as a result of victimization rather than precede itLow self-esteem, on the other hand, is clearly an antecedent of victimization, whereas evidence of longitudinal changes in (global) self-esteem resulting from victimization is more mixed(e.g., Card, 2003)
6Christina Salmivalli University of Turku, Finland Prospective relations between victimization, rejection, friendlessness and children’s self- and peer-perceptionsChristina SalmivalliUniversity of Turku, Finland(unpublished data)
7Grade 5/6 Grade 6/7 self(1) self(3) vic(3) rej(3) fri3 peer(1) peer(3) .41self(1)self(3)-.14chronicvic (1-2).44vic(3).29-.21chronicrej (1-2).63rej(3)-.25-.17.23chronicfri (1-2)-.13fri3.14peer(1)peer(3).31Figure 2. The final model (chi-square (23)=30.16, p=.14; CFI=.99; RMSEA=.04).
8In the short term, victimization seems to influence children’s generalized perception of peers, rather than their view of themselvesA negative self-perception is clearly a risk factor for victimization (but also for other peer relationship adversities, such as rejection and friendlessness)
9What about the long run?Follow-up studies examining the long-term consequences of victimization are, to date, almost nonexistentAs an exception, Olweus (1994) followed up 87 men who had been assessed in grade 9 (and, most of them, also in grade 6) up to 23 years of age.The former victims were relatively well-adjusted in many respects. However, they had a lower self-esteem and they suffered from depression more often than their non-victimized age-mates.
10Christina Salmivalli University of Turku, Finland Long-term influences of victimization: a follow-up from adolescence to young adulthoodChristina SalmivalliUniversity of Turku, Finland(unpublished data)
11Participants of the study 274 young adults (145 male and 129 female), who had been involved in a research on school bullying in grade 8 (1996), were approached by mailed questionnaires eight years later (2004)measures of: depression, self-perception, perception of other people, and interpersonal goals52.4% of men and 78.3% of women respondedoverall response rate = 64.6%
121996 2004 Victimization in grade 8 (1996) assessed with opp-sexnomssame-sexnomsself-repdepressionvicselfothersVictimization in grade 8 (1996) assessed with- two self-report items: my classmates make fun of me; people pick on me-peer-nominations from same-sex and opposite-sex classmatesDepression: BDI, α = .91Self-perception: Rosenberg SE items, with the instruction to report ”the way youfeel about yourself when interacting with people of your own age”, α = .86Perception of other people: 13 items describing positive and negative qualities ofother people (age-mates), such as "they can really be relied on", "they are hostile",or "they really care about what happens to me" α=.88
141996 2004 opp-sex noms same-sex noms self-rep depression -.14 vic self .18others.16.35”happiness andsatisfaction””Happiness and satisfaction” scale:I am a happy person;I like being the way I am;I wish I were different;I am unhappy;I am cheerful;I am a lucky person, α=.72
161996 2004 opp-sex noms same-sex noms self-rep .16 depression vic .32 -.16others.16.44”happiness andsatisfaction”χ2(5)=9.09, p=.11, CFI=.97, RMSEA=.07Perceived popularity: 11 items(e.g., I am not very popular;I have many friends).perceivedpopularity.60.16Perceived family support: 6 items(e.g., Nobody cares for me at home;my parents like me)perceivedfamily support
17Victimization in adolescence (grade 8, age 14-15) was predictive of young adults’ (age 22-23) depression and their perception of other peopleThese influences were significant even controlling for scores on ”happiness and satisfaction” measure in grade 8Unlike victimization, perceived popularity and/or perceived family support did not predict variance in any of the outcome variables eight years later
18Consequences for the group? Bukowski and Sippola (2001): "victimization not only damages the individual, but damages the group itself as well as the individuals who constitute the group”How does victimization damage the group?
19Experienced and observed victimization and school satisfaction With multilevel modeling, it is possible to disentangle the variance in school satisfaction between individual students, from variance between different school classesoperationalization of school satisfaction:MARK THE FACE THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOU WHEN AT SCHOOL. .. .. .. .. .. .. .____ ____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____x
20A study with 48 classrooms (grades 4 to 6) - some initial findings: Classrooms differ from each other in the overall degree of victimizationdifferences in experienced victimization are between individual children, rather than between classrooms: significant differences in observed victimization can be detected between classrooms, howeverthere are also significant differences between classrooms in school satisfactionAt the individual level, experienced victimization is related to lowered level of school satisfactionAt the classroom level, the overall degree of victimization in the classroom is related to lowered level of school satisfaction
21degree of victimization experiencedvictimizationobservedvictimization.721.00BETWEEN-LEVEL:(explaining variationbetween classrooms)degree of victimizationin the classroom-.31shool enjoyment / satisfactionWITHIN-LEVEL:(explaining variationbetween students)-.06 (n.s.)-.14observedvictimizationexperiencedvictimization.16.611.001.00experiencedvictimizationobservedvictimizationgender
22Research on consequences of victimization: some future challenges More prospective studies controlling for adjustment variables at time 1 are needed, to avoid confounding antecedents of victimization from their consequencesNeed to identify mechanisms of influenceNeed to identify moderatorsprotective factors ?Group-level consequences (as well as antecedents) of victimization/aggression are not yet well-knownAnd what about group-level protective factors?