Presentation on theme: "1 Pre – AP 10/11 Warm – UP Notes Enzymes and Bioenergetics (CH 2 section 4) HW: Print Enzyme Lab (posted today) Study for Quiz FRIDAY. Check your assignment."— Presentation transcript:
1 Pre – AP 10/11 Warm – UP Notes Enzymes and Bioenergetics (CH 2 section 4) HW: Print Enzyme Lab (posted today) Study for Quiz FRIDAY. Check your assignment for PSAT
2 Warm - UP What are enzymes and what do they do?
4 What Are Enzymes? Proteins ( Most enzymes are Proteins (tertiary and quaternary structures) Catalyst Act as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction Not permanently Not permanently changed in the process
5 Enzymes catalyze Are specific for what they will catalyze Reusable Are Reusable ase End in –ase-Sucrase-Lactase-Maltase
6 How do enzymes Work? weakening bonds owers Enzymes work by weakening bonds which lowers activation energy
7 Enzymes Free Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Free energy of activation Without Enzyme With Enzyme
15 Temperature & pH Most enzymes like near neutral pH (6 to 8) ionic salts Denatured (unfolded) by ionic salts High temperatures denature (Most like normal Body temperatures High temperatures are the most dangerous reactions & denature enzymes (Most like normal Body temperatures)
17 Cofactors and Coenzymes Cofactors: Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) Cofactors: Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and Coenzymes: vitamins enzymatic activity Coenzymes: vitamins (organic) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity. Example: Example: Iron hemoglobin oxygen Iron must be present in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.
18 Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors a. Competitive inhibitors: resembleenzyme’s normal substrate competeactive site a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site. Enzyme Competitive inhibitor Substrate
19 Inhibitors b.Noncompetitive inhibitors: do not enter the active sitebind to another part enzymeenzymechange its shapealters the active site Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site. Enzyme active site altered Noncompetitive Inhibitor Substrate
29 Endergonic Reactions Chemical reaction energy Chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy. (energy absorbing) Photosynthesis Photosynthesis 6CO 2 +6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 SUN photons Light Energy (glucose)
30 Exergonic Reactions Chemical reactions releases energy (energy releasing) Chemical reactions that releases energy (energy releasing) Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O+ ATP (glucose)Energy
32 What is Metabolism? sum total chemical activities cells The sum total of the chemical activities of all cells.
33 Two Types of Metabolism Anabolic Pathways Anabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways
34 Anabolic Pathway Metabolic reactions, consume energy(endergonic), build Metabolic reactions, which consume energy (endergonic), to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 SUN lightenergy (glucose)
35 Catabolic Pathway Metabolic reactions release energy (exergonic)breaking down Metabolic reactions which release energy (exergonic) by breaking down complex molecules in simpler compounds Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP (glucose) energy
39 Adenosine Triphosphate Three phosphate groups-(two with high energy bonds Three phosphate groups-(two with high energy bonds Last phosphate group (PO 4 ) contains the MOST energy Last phosphate group (PO 4 ) contains the MOST energy
40 Breaking the Bonds of ATP phosphorylation Process is called phosphorylation Occurs continually in cells ATP-ase last PO 4 bond Enzyme ATP-ase can weaken & break last PO 4 bond releasing energy & free PO 4
41 How does ATP work ? enzymes energy-rich glucose Organisms use enzymes to break down energy-rich glucose to release its potential energy adenosine triphosphate(ATP) This energy is trapped and stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate(ATP)
42 How Much ATP Do Cells Use? each cell 10,000,000 molecules of ATP per second It is estimated that each cell will generate and consume approximately 10,000,000 molecules of ATP per second
43 Coupled Reaction - ATP exergonic hydrolysis ATP endergonic dehydration process transferring phosphate group The exergonic hydrolysis of ATP is coupled with the endergonic dehydration process by transferring a phosphate group to another molecule. H2OH2OH2OH2O H2OH2OH2OH2O