Presentation on theme: "1 Enzymes. 2 What Are Enzymes? Proteins (Most enzymes are Proteins (tertiary and quaternary structures) CatalystAct as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction."— Presentation transcript:
11 Temperature & pH High temperatures denature (Most like normal Body temperaturesHigh temperatures are the most dangerous reactions & denature enzymes (Most like normal Body temperatures) Most enzymes like near neutral pH (6 to 8) ionic saltsDenatured (unfolded) by ionic salts
12 Cofactors and Coenzymes Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) vitamins enzymatic activityInorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity. Example :Example : Iron hemoglobin oxygen Iron must be present in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.
13 Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors a. Competitive inhibitors: resemble enzyme’s normal substrate competeactive site a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site. Enzyme Competitive inhibitor Substrate
14Inhibitors b.Noncompetitive inhibitors: do not enter the active sitebind to another part enzymeenzyme change its shape alters the active site Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site. Enzyme active site altered Noncompetitive Inhibitor Substrate
15 Examples of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions Salivary Amylase –Breakdown of starch to glucose –Glucose is needed in the process of cellular respiration –Cellular respiration provides energy for cells Catalase –Break down hydrogen peroxide to water and carbon dioxide –Hydrogen peroxide is a toxin formed in cells as a by product of many cellular reactions If you did not have these enzymes you would not be able to accomplish these necessary functions –Example: Without the enzyme lactase you can not break down the sugar lactose. Glucose is a product of the digestion of lactose. Glucose is needed for cellular respiration.