Presentation on theme: "Enrico Vidale with M.Cai, D.Maso and D. Pettenella Dept. Landuse and Agro-forestry Systems University of Padua - Italy Suceava INNO-NATURE project 04-May-2010."— Presentation transcript:
Enrico Vidale with M.Cai, D.Maso and D. Pettenella Dept. Landuse and Agro-forestry Systems University of Padua - Italy Suceava INNO-NATURE project 04-May-2010 RURAL NETWORK MARKETING AS INNOVATIVE WAY TO ACHIEVE RURAL GOALS
Outline 0. Before starting: some base concepts 1.NetWork in business: definition 2.A field survey: a comparative analysis of 2 case studies Borgotaro Consortium Dalla Valle Oy 3.Indicators 4.Networks of NTFPs producers as a tool to support PES systems 5.Conclusions
0. Before starting…some basic concepts! Public goods scarce public goods problems to share the outputs Lack of organization ( land fragmentation, scattered tourist supply, scale dimension, ect.) Needs to redistribute the welfare in rural areas Stimulate wider willingness to pay (WTP) Social Willingness to pay The cluster of all the incorporated resources within the net of people relationship Social Capital
1.NetWork in business: definition (Human and Provan, 1997 mod.) An intentionally formed group of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in which the firms: are geographically proximate, share some inputs and outputs, and undertake direct interactions with each other for specific business outcomes. (The interactions may include joint production, new product development, collective marketing and employee training)
Proximate Share Direct interactions Have you ever been in Bucharest?
1.1 Two basic questions At micro level: For SME supplying rough material, is it better to be linked to a large, internationally competitive, trustful buyer of specialized nature-based products, or on a network of small-scale companies operating at local scale? –Vertical integration vs. horizontal integration? At macro (i.e. regional) level: In rural development policies, it is better to support local economies based on a specialized single innovative value-chain, or on a cluster of small-scale, multi-sectoral, interconnected activities?
Loosest cooperation Tightest cooperation Development circle Loose co- operative circle Project group Joint venture Joint unit Social links/trust Entrepreneurial culture Development of consumers demand Financial support Regulations Advisory services Competitors strategy … (Source: Varamäki and Vesalainen 2003) 1.2 Main types of network
Strategic intensity Formalisation 1.3 Network development paths
1.inter-organizational exchanges: direct transactions or exchanges among network firms, such as buying and selling, jointly producing and marketing a product and exchanging friendship and information among each other; 2.organizational credibility: firms perceive that their external legitimacy can be enhanced through association with the network. Thus, participation can increase the visibility and credibility of member firms; 3.access to resources: network participation can play an instrumental role in accessing new markets, new product ideas, and other valued resources for their companies; 4.financial performances: economic benefits could occur within a short time after joining the network, but also in a long-term perspective. (Source: Human and Provan, 1997) 1.3 Possible outcomes from networks
2. A field survey: a comparative analysis of 2 case studies 2 organizational models: –Dalla Valle Oy in Finland (North Karelia - FIN) –Borgovalditaro Consortium (Emilia-Tuscany Regions - I) The same product: Boletus mushrooms Quite similar socio- economic context (rural environment, forest as predominating land use, nature-based tourism)
DallaValle Oy (Finland)Borgotaro Consortium (Italy) Year of creation 1995 (1997: production starts)1995 Network model Joint Unit with a Development circle of pickers Formalized project group 2.2 Case study outline
Do you remember this graph? Strategic intensity Formalisation Dalla Valle Oy Borgotaro Consortium Pickers for Dalla Valle Oy
Mushroom Pickers (North Karelia suppliers) Service suppliers Lines and Collectiong Points (Emplyees) Dalla Valle Oy owner Production manager Marketing manager Final Customers (Catering, small- large companies, resturants in South Europe and Italian Market) Newspapers, web, sms, telephone Info Place Quality Species Time Customers orders Quality Prices Company strategy Company needsMarket trends Market requests Customer requests Customer requests Employees Work tasks Products Company needs Check up Shipment Production manager Marketing manager Mushroom Pickers (North Karelia suppliers) Market requests Customer requests Final Customers (Catering, small- large companies, resturants in South Europe and Italian Market) Mushroom Pickers (North Karelia suppliers) Mushrooms Finnish case study
Price survey for the season 2008 Mushroom Pickers ( North Karelia suppliers) Production manager Marketing manager Costs 6-8 /Kg Mr Dalla Valle Italian customers ( large distribution ) Italian customers ( small distribution or retail ) Final customers /Kg Return 6-13 /Kg Return 2-15 /Kg Company target 12 /Kg Rejects and water loss ~2 /kg!! Costs 0,80 /kg Lines and Collecting Points (Company Emplyees) Workers on food process Costs 0,28 /kg Company operating income 0-0,10-0,23-1 /Kg no no. 70 Some hundreds 6-8 [/Kg] Costs 0,15 /kg Costs 0,23 /kg Finnish case study
2.4 Italian case study Comunalia (Forest owners) Local professional harvesters Local restaurants, tourism farms Buyers Processors (local enterprises) Importers Retailers (family shops, laboratory- shop) Foreign suppliers Local public authorities Fungo di Borgotaro Consortium Tourism agencies Other local producers and services suppliers Forest owners Institutional border Mushroom from abroad or other Italian sourcing areas Available local mushroom production (free of own consumption) Tourists Marketing and intermediaries Local suppliers End users
EC Mark of origin Production areas Type of permit Growing rate
>> TESSERINO VERDE Comunalie di Gotra, Buzzò, Albareto, Boschetto, Groppo, Tombeto e Montegroppo in Comune di Albareto. Verranno rilasciati tesserini di colore verde con le seguenti caratteristiche: * giornaliero (valido per il giorno indicato nel tesserino) : costo: Euro 15,00 per i non residenti in Comune di Albareto; Euro 6,00 per i residenti nel Comune di Albareto nonché per i proprietari, ed affittuari con contratto almeno annuale, di seconde case nelle frazioni delle Comunalie ; * semestrale (valido comunque non oltre il ): costo: Euro 150,00 per i non residenti nei Comuni di Albareto Euro 67,00 per i residenti nel Comune di Albereto nonché per i proprietari, ed affittuari con contratto almeno annuale, di seconde case nelle frazioni delle Comunalie Modalità di accesso: i tesserini saranno vidimati, nel punto di vendita, con il timbro della Comunalia di accesso, da personale incaricato dal Consiglio di Amministrazione. Tale tesserino darà diritto allaccesso ad ununica Comunalia, pur consentendo di percorrere a piedi e di esercitare la raccolta nel territorio di tutte le Comunalie facenti parte dellarea B). In considerazione dellantica consuetudine di reciprocità fra le Comunalie confinanti di S.Vincenzo-Rovinaglia in Comune di Borgotaro e Gotra, Buzzò e Albareto in Comune di Albareto è consentito agli utenti lo sconfinamento; Per evitare un eccesso di carico giornaliero di cercatori con effetti negativi sulla capacità di rigenerazione dellecosistema, viene stabilito un numero massimo giornaliero di persone a cui consentire laccesso come a seguito specificato: Comunalie di Gotra e Buzzò n.100 Comunalia di Albareto n.700 Comunalie di Boschetto e Tombeto n.120 Comunalia di Groppo n.100 Comunalia di Montegroppo n.200 Giorni e orario di raccolta : martedì, sabato e domenica; la raccolta può essere effettuata a partire da unora prima della levata del sole, mentre luscita dallarea B) deve avvenire entro e non oltre le ore 15. Quantitativi: non oltre 3 Kg. Daily permit: 15 Euro (for 3 kg max)
DallaValle Oy (Finland)Borgotaro Consortium (Italy) Year of creation Network modelJoint Unit with a Development circle of pickers Formalized project group InnovationSystem of m. gathering logistic (30 collection centres), freezing technology, grading system EC mark of origin; system of regulation for permit selling Value chainVertical integration, short chainHorizontal integration, net-system Forest production area Very large: North Karelia (Russia) 22,000 ha of community forests (with the mark); total area involved: 60,000 ha Production volumes From min 20 (in 1999) to max 1,100 (in 2003) tons per year. As an average, in : about 280 tons/year tons/year (with an average production of kg/ha/year and an area of 22,000 ha) Infrastructures30 collecting centres, 2 refrigerator centres (plus an external one) 6 local enterprises for mushrooms processing and trading, 1 shop- laboratory-restaurant EmployeesMax 21,000 pickers; seasonal employees (July-Oct) in the refrigerator centres 28 full-time workers in 2 large industrial firms, 4 full-time workers in the shop-laboratory-restaurant, 10 seasonal workers
3.1 Indicators Significant Meaningful Appropriated Realistic Time-based A useful tool to measure a given dimension
Seasonal income from mushroom collection relative to labor income (selected occupational groups) 3.3 Indicators
Comunalia (Forest owners) Local professional harvesters Local restaurants, tourism farms Buyers Processors (local enterprises ) Importers Retailers (family shops, laboratory-shop) Foreign suppliers Local public authorities Fungo di Borgotaro Consortium Tourism agencies Other local producers and services suppliers Forest owners Institutional border Mushroom from abroad or other Italian sourcing areas Available local mushroom production (free of own consumption) Tourists Marketing and intermediaries Local suppliers End users NetWork SystemTraditional structure Mushroom Pickers ( North Karelia suppliers) Production manager Marketing manager Wholesalers-Large distribution-processor Small distribution or retail Final customers Lines and Collectiong Points ( Company Emplyees) Workers on food process between company and rural areas between Finland an South Europe Local scale market and business Dalla Valle owner 6-8 [/Kg] Cumulated costs for fresh boletes Dalla Valle Oy Mass-media External companies Local markets Two case-studies: Borgotaro System (IT) and Traditional System of Dalla Valle Company (FI) …are there any method to describe these systems? Flow-chart
…nodes and arc…another way to show a system NetWork SystemTraditional structure The Social Network Analysis (SNA) may help us to get some findings… …for instance, who hold the power of scarcity?
Indicatorvalue Total node11 Total Link15 Density0,13636 OutLinked nodes9 InLinked nodes11 Reciprocal-linked2 Average CLC0, OutDegree: layer distribution Spring-Embedding algorithm graph distribution …we may see the centrality of the Dalla Valle company within the chain supply… …or the real player hierarchy of the chain…
Indicatorvalue Total node14 Total Link45 Density0,24725 OutLinked nodes14 InLinked nodes13 Reciprocal-linked8 Average CLC 0, Out Degree: layer distribution In Degree: layer distribution Fruchterman algorithm graph distribution The centrality of tourists within the network. The Out&InDegree evidences a clear repartition of power.
Mushroom in Borgotaro: much more than a commodity or recreational service: a component of a larger network based on the concept of territory: a consistent portfolio of products and services coordinated marketing efforts for their promotion 4. Networks of NTFPs producers as a tool of territorial marketing
A NTFP as imago product for presenting a territory Traditional local products Green products Slow food culture
The road concept A linkage is needed among the imago product (or the main product) and the associated products and services of the same area The road concept (i.e. trails, roads, itineraries or pathways) is a very common tool for linking various products and services across a territory physical, organizational link Cultural link
5.1 Conclusions Income generation: the well organized, specialized company is creating more direct AV and employment opportunities … but: this activity is more exposed to risk and instability (seasonality, at least) the indirect effects of a network system are much more relevant
Two components of the most advanced form of networks: - A (contractual) coordination of economic agents for the supply of products and services to increase profit and/or stability (a market share) - A mutual trust: input = social capital output = not only market products are supplied but also relational goods Networks are also dynamic: network growth can bring problems, conflicts and new risks, also because outcomes can have an asymmetric distribution among firms composing the network (Gulati, 1998) 5.2 Conclusions