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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 2: APPLICATIONS"— Presentation transcript:



3 Military Applications:
Command, Control, Communications, Computing, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Targeting (C4ISRT) Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition Battlefield surveillance Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain Targeting Battle damage assessment Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) attack detection and reconnaissance

4 Sniper Detection BBN Boomerang Currently deployed in Iraq
Humvee-mounted tetrahedral arrays to sense muzzle blast and shockwave

5 Sniper Detection via WSNs
Boomerang relies on a single point of detection Possible scenarios PinPtr Uses a spatially distributed WSN to detect snipers

6 PinPtr in Action 6

7 Further Military Applications
Intrusion detection (mine fields) Detection of firing gun location Chemical/Biological attack detection Targeting and target tracking systems Enhanced navigation systems Battle damage assessment system

8 Environmental Applications
Tracking the movements of birds, small animals, and insects Monitoring environmental conditions that affect crops and livestock (precision agriculture) Irrigation Flood Detection Earth monitoring and planetary exploration

9 Environmental Applications
Biological, Earth, and environmental monitoring in marine, soil, and atmospheric contexts Meteorological or geophysical research Pollution Study Forest Fire Detection 9

10 Habitat Monitoring http://www. greatduckisland
Habitat Monitoring Great Duck Island in Maine.

11 Cane Toad Monitoring http://www. cse. unsw. edu
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Monitoring cane toads in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia Cane toads (Bufo marinus) - introduced to control sugar pests in Australia about 70 years ago

12 ZebraNet Animal Tracking – Use collars with GPS to monitor the walking patterns of zebras in Kenya Collect detailed, accurate position logs of each zebra Have a high data recovery rate Autonomous Operation

13 Forest Fire Detection: Firebug
Temperature and humidity sensor Barometric pressure sensor GPS unit Accelerometer Light Intensity Sensor 13 13

14 Disaster Relief Operations
Earthquake-rubbled buildings (robots and sensors): locate survivors, evaluate structural damage 14

15 Health Applications Patient Monitoring Helping Disabled Diagnostics
Telemonitoring of human physiological data Tracking and monitoring doctors and patients inside a hospital, and

16 CodeBlue: WSNs for Medical Care (m-HEALTH) http://www. eecs. harvard
NSF, NIH, U.S. Army, Sun Microsystems and Microsoft Corporation Motivation - Vital sign data poorly integrated with pre-hospital and hospital-based patient care records

17 CodeBlue: WSNs for Medical Care
Small wearable sensors Wireless pulse oximeter Based on the Mica2, MicaZ, and Telos sensor node platforms Custom sensor board with pulse oximeter or EKG circuitry Pluto mote scaled-down version of the Telos rechargeable Li-ion battery small USB connector 3-axis accelerometer 17 17

18 CodeBlue: WSNs for Medical Care
Intel SHIMMER mote CC2420 IEEE radio Rechargeable Li-polymer battery MicroSD slot supporting up to 2 GBytes (more than 80 days of data) Optional Bluetooth radio 18

19 Wireless Automatic Meter Reading (WAMR) Systems for Power Utilities: M2M Communication

20 Smart Roads: M2M * Traffic monitoring, accident detection, recovery
assistance * Finding out empty parking lots in a city, without asking a server (car-to-car communication) * Vehicle tracking and detection 20

21 Buildings (or Bridges)
- High-rise buildings self-detect structural faults Reduce energy wastage by proper humidity, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) control Needs measurements about room occupancy, temperature, air flow, … Monitor mechanical stress after earthquakes

22 Further Applications Factory Floor Automation Constructing Smart Homes
Monitoring Product Quality Factory Floor Automation Constructing Smart Homes Constructing Smart Office Spaces Smart Spaces

23 MORE APPLICATIONS Facility Management
Intrusion detection into industrial sites Control of leakages in chemical plants, …

24 Wireless Underground Sensor Networks I. F
Wireless Underground Sensor Networks I.F. Akyildiz and Erich Stuntebeck, “Wireless Underground Sensor Networks: Research Challenges”, Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) Journal, Nov Sink Soil Condition Sensor Water Salinity Temperature


26 APPLICATIONS Environmental Security:
Earthquake and landslide prediction and monitoring Groundwater monitoring Toxic substance monitoring near wells and aquifers National Security: Concealed and autonomous border patrol Intruder detection Personal Safety: Mine disaster prevention & rescue Road & subway accident prevention & rescue

27 APPLICATIONS Soil condition monitoring for intelligent agriculture and landscaping Oil Reservoir monitoring for upstream oil & gas industry Intelligent traffic system in road & subway tunnels

28 APPLICATIONS * pipes * electrical wiring, * liquid storage tanks
Underground infrastructure monitoring such as * pipes * electrical wiring, * liquid storage tanks * underground fuel tanks * septic tanks Monitoring the structural health of any underground components of a building, bridge, or dam

29 APPLICATIONS Sports field monitoring Golf courses Soccer fields
Baseball fields Grass tennis courts

30 Major Undetected Pipe Leak in 2006 [New York Times, March 15, 2006 ]
APPLICATION Example 1 Major Undetected Pipe Leak in 2006 [New York Times, March 15, 2006 ] The largest oil spill occurred on the tundra of Alaska's North Slope 270 K gallons of thick crude oil spilled over two acres Oil escaped through a pinprick-size hole in a corroded 34-inch pipe Most of the oil seeped beneath the snow without attracting the attention of workers monitoring alarm systems The spill went undetected for as long as five days

31 Underground Pipeline Monitoring
Z. Sun,, "MISE-PIPE: Magnetic Induction-based Wireless Sensor Networks for Underground Pipeline Monitoring," Ad Hoc Networks Journal (Elsevier), May 2011. Sink Flow Direction Sensor (powered by fluid flow)

32 Intelligent Irrigation
APPLICATION Example 2 Intelligent Irrigation Irrigation: 69% of worldwide water consumption. Current solution: Apply uniform irrigation in the whole field using predetermined plan. Intelligent irrigation: Apply right amount of water at the right location and right time. Depends on underground sensor networks Fresh Water Usage in the World (2007) Irrigation 69%

33 APPLICATION Example 3 Border Patrol
Z. Sun, "BorderSense: Border Patrol through Advanced Wireless Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc Networks Journal (Elsevier), May 2011. Conventional Border Patrol Systems: Extensive human resources needed Intruder can avoid the check points New border patrol system: Hybrid sensor system consists of: Underground sensors Unmanned aerial vehicle

34 Oil Reservoir Monitoring
APPLICATION Example 4 Oil Reservoir Monitoring Terrestrial/seabed oil recovery Large but thin fracture filled with water/oil Very small sensor (<1 cm) RF-challenged environment Water/oil + soil + tunnel

35 Mine Disaster Prevention & Rescue
APPLICATION Example 5 Mine Disaster Prevention & Rescue No existing technique supports disaster-immune communication and localization in UG mines. Based on our research on mine communications, the hybrid EM-MI system can realize the disaster immunity.

36 Landslide detection system using WSN at Munnar, Idukki, Kerala, India
APPLICATION EXAMPLE 6: AMRITA WSN System for Landslide Detection Landslide detection system using WSN at Munnar, Idukki, Kerala, India WSN in combination with Wi-Fi and satellite technology Multiple sets of geophysical sensors inside a column 5 -6 m buried in the earth

37 AMRITA WSN System for Landslide Detection http://www. amrita
Data retrieved using spatially distributed WSN Wireless sensor nodes forward data on to a Gateway Gateway sends data via a directional Wi-Fi link to a Field Data Management Center (FMC) Finally collected at a Data Management Center (DMC) through a satellite link 252 km away from the deployment field

UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS I.F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, T. Melodia, “Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Research Challenges”, Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) Journal, March 2005. Applications: Ocean Sampling Networks Pollution Monitoring and other environmental monitoring (chemical, biological) Disaster Prevention Assisted Navigation Distributed Tactical Surveillance Mine Reconnaissance


40 Ocean Sampling Sensors
Acoustic Transponders Precision Marine Geodetic Systems Spread Spectrum Modem

41 Ocean Sampling Sensors
Point measurements in upper water column 10 and 25 mi off Moss Landing Drift buoy: Path followed by surface currents Surface station

42 Autonomuos Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)
CARIBOU by Bluefin Robotics Corporation Equipped with state-of-the-art sensors (side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler), and can collect high-quality data for: Archaeological remote sensing Multi-static acoustic modeling Fisheries resource studies and Development of concurrent mapping and localization techniques.

43 Autonomuos Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)
Solar recharged AUV Phantom HD2 ROV

44 Manufacturers of Sensor Devices
Crossbow ( Mica2 mote, Micaz, Dot mote and Stargate Platform Intel Research ( Stargate, iMote Cogent Computer ( Mote iv – Telos Mote ( Ember (

45 Manufacturers of Sensor Devices
Texas Instruments Motorola Siemens Eaton Samsung Mitsubishi ZigBee Alliance develops a standard for wireless low-power, low-rate devices.


47 WSN Standards Following thousands of papers, three main standards emerged: IEEE : Defines MAC and PHY layers ZigBee: Internet-independent standard backed by hundreds of players (TI, Kroger(!), Philips, GE, Intel, Siemens, Sony, Whirlpool, etc…) – sits on top of 6LowPAN: Extend Internet to WSNs (IPv6  WSN) – sits on top of Other standards WirelessHART, WINA: Industrial networking ISA SP100.11a: Process and factory automation

48 ZigBee and 802.15.4 ZigBee sits on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard
defines the MAC and PHY layers.

49 IEEE 802.15.4: Types of Devices Full Function Device (FFD):
Can send beacons Can communicate with other FFDs Can route frames Can act as PAN coordinator Typically features power supply Reduced Function Device (RFD): Cannot route frames Cannot communicate with other RFDs Can communicate with FFD Runs typically on batteries PAN Coordinator Is responsible of a Personal Area Network (PAN) Manages PAN association/de-association

50 Supported Topologies Star Mesh

51 IEEE : PHY Layer

52 IEEE 802.15.4: MAC Layer Two operation modes: Beacon Enabled
PAN coordinator periodically transmits beacons Usually adopted in star topologies Slotted CSMA/CA + scheduled transmissions (TDMA) Non-Beacon Enabled Uncoordinated access through unslotted CSMA/CA

53 ZigBee: Routing Three Types of Devices: ZigBee Routing Integrates:
ZB Coordinator (FFD) ZB Router (FFD) ZB End-Device (RFD o FFD) ZigBee Routing Integrates: Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Cluster Tree Algorithm Thousands of papers on routing in WSNs… and we are back to AODV!!!

54 6LowPAN IPv6  WSNs – Integrate WSNs into the Internet
An Adaptation Layer to fit IPv6 over low-power wireless area networks Mostly focused on compressing IPv6 header into smaller packets 1280 byte IPv6 MTU -> 127 byte frames Sits on top of IEEE MAC and PHY

55 Myths and Reality Hundreds of nodes in a network
Large-scale multi-hop networks Data-centric routing, stateless routing, cluster-based routing, geographical routing, etc… <$1 e.a. Tens of nodes in a network Mostly rely on star topologies and coordinators AODV ~$100 e.a.

56 A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE: Limitations of current MICRO-sensor networks
Limited capabilities Limited computing and data storage capabilities Limited communication bandwidth Limited power and energy systems (huge impact on network lifetime, reliability). Size (current sensor dimensions also limit their applications).

Nanotechnology is enabling the development of novel nano-devices which are: Much smaller Less power hungry + self-powered Able to do some processing + data storage New nanosensing capabilities

Intra/Over body Nano-Things Internet Consumer Electronic Devices “Other Nano-Things”

Nano-Sensors Consumer Electronic Devices

60 Application: Advanced Health SYSTEMS
Internet Healthcare Provider Intra/Over Body Nano-Things

61 Application: Advanced Health SYSTEMS
Nanosensors in the body can be connected to the Internet by means of nano-to-micro interfaces, thus allowing remote: Glucose, sodium and other ions monitoring and control. Cancer monitoring and control. Smart intra-body drug delivery. Brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's, epilepsy and depression detection and control. Infectious agents detection (e.g., malaria).


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