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BOH4M CHAPTER 2 Management Learning Past To Present 1Lajipe Faleyimu.

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1 BOH4M CHAPTER 2 Management Learning Past To Present 1Lajipe Faleyimu

2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW What can be learned from classical management thinking? What are the insights of the behavioural management approaches? What are the foundations of modern management thinking? 2Lajipe Faleyimu

3 Classical Management Approaches SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT – emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support. 3Lajipe Faleyimu

4 Administrative Principles Division of labour Authority Discipline Unity of command Subordination of Individual Interests Remuneration Centralization Scalar Chain Order Equity Personnel Tenure Initiative Esprit de corps 4Lajipe Faleyimu

5 Classical Management Approaches BUREAUCRACY – rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order and legitimate authority 5Lajipe Faleyimu

6 Classical Management – Bureaucratic organizations  Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations: ◦ Clear division of labour ◦ Clear hierarchy of authority ◦ Formal rules and procedures ◦ Impersonality ◦ Careers based on merit  Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy: ◦ Excessive paperwork or “red tape” ◦ Slowness in handling problems ◦ Rigidity in the face of shifting needs ◦ Resistance to change ◦ Employee apathy Lajipe Faleyimu6

7 BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES Figure 2.2 Foundations in the behavioral or human resource approaches to management 7Lajipe Faleyimu

8 Figure 2.3 Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs. Lajipe Faleyimu8

9 BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES  McGregor’s Theory X assumes that workers: Dislike work Lack ambition Are irresponsible Resist change Prefer to be led  McGregor’s Theory Y assumes that workers are: Willing to work Capable of self control Willing to accept responsibility Imaginative and creative Capable of self-direction Lajipe Faleyimu9

10 MODERN MANAGEMENT FOUNDATIONS ◦ Quantitative analysis and tools ◦ Systems view of organizations ◦ Contingency thinking ◦ Commitment to quality ◦ Learning organizations ◦ Evidence-based management 10Lajipe Faleyimu

11 MODERN MANAGEMENT FOUNDATIONS  21 st Century Manager Managers have to excel as never before to meet the expectations held of them and of the organization they lead.  Attributes of a 21 st Century Manager Global strategist – understanding the interconnections among nations, cultures and economies Master of technology – comfortable with information technology Inspiring leader – attracting and motivating workers to achieve high-performance culture Model of ethical behaviour – acting ethically in all ways 11Lajipe Faleyimu

12 REVIEW: MANAGEMENT LEARNING PAST TO PRESENT Should Weber’s notion of the ideal bureaucracy be scrapped, or is it still relevant today? How can a manager, even today, benefit from the Maslow’s needs theory Can system and subsystem dynamics describe performance problems for an organization in your community? 12Lajipe Faleyimu

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