Presentation on theme: "650 Leadership and management. Objectives Explain the difference between leadership and management and identify the skills needed for both. Discuss a."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Explain the difference between leadership and management and identify the skills needed for both. Discuss a range of leadership styles and their impact on practice. Discuss a range of management styles and their impact on practice. Explore how clashes between leadership and management can be addressed.
Think of a leader Who do you think is a good leader? What qualities stand out?
Management v Leadership - what is the difference?
The Four Core Theory Groups 1.Trait Theories – what type of person makes a good Leader? 2.Behavioural Theories – what does a good Leader do? 3.Contingency/Situational Theories – how does the situation influence good Leadership? 4.Power and Influence Theories – what is the source of the Leader's power?
Trait Theory Among the core traits identified are: Achievement drive Leadership motivation Honesty and integrity Self-confidence Cognitive ability Knowledge of business Emotional Maturity Others: charisma, creativity and flexibility
Behavioural Theory Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
Power and Influence Theory Power and influence theories of leadership take an entirely different approach – these are based on the different ways that leaders use power and influence to get things done, and they look at the leadership styles that emerge as a result.
Positional Power Comes from the authority of your position and is based on what you can do to and for others People with this power may need to use – Rewards, bonuses, pay increases, threat of dismissal, in order to motivate Generally uses Transactional Leadership
Personal Power Comes from interpersonal skills and respect People with this power use the respect people have for them due to their vision, commitment, knowledge, skills and personal attractiveness or charisma to motivate Generally uses Transformational Leadership
Transactional/Transformational Purpose TransformationalTransactional Where the leader taps into his followers' higher needs and values, inspires them with new possibilities that have strong appeal and raises their level of confidence, conviction and desire to achieve a common, moral purpose. Where the leader causes a follower to act in a certain way in return for something the follower wants to have (or avoid). For example, by offering higher pay in return for increased productivity; or tax cuts in exchange for votes
Transactional/Transformational Purpose TransformationalTransactional A shared higher, more stretching purpose is central to transformational leadership. No shared purpose binds follower and leader, other than perhaps maintaining the status quo.
Transactional/Transformational Purpose TransformationalTransactional Burns said there is always a moral aspect to transforming leadership.* There is no explicit moral side to transactional leadership - the leader's aims may be moral or immoral.
Transactional/Transformational Purpose TransformationalTransactional Transforming leadership centres on longer-term, more difficult (often more inspiring) aims. Transactional leadership usually focuses on leaders' and followers' shorter-term needs.
Contingency/Situational Theory There is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others.
Situational Hersey and Blanchard high Relationship / Willingness low 2. Selling4. Delegating 1.Telling 3.Participating low --------- Task / Ability ------- high
What is a leadership style? The way that the functions of leadership are carried out The way that a leader behaves May be based on: personality, background, beliefs, values and work ethic, position they hold and the context of the leadership position
Effective leaders demonstrate a particular combination of: Personal qualities Leadership behaviour Professional credibility Management skills
Management Styles X-Y theory Fayol’s Management theory Action Centred
Mcgregor’s X theory of management The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives. The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else
Mcgregor’s Y theory of management Effort in work is as natural as work and play. People will apply self-control and self- direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment. Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
Mcgregor’s Y theory of management People usually accept and often seek responsibility. The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised.
Fayol’s Management Theory 6 functions of management. Forecasting. Planning. Organising. Commanding. Coordinating. Controlling.
Management styles What do you think makes a good manager?
Bennis 1. The manager administers; the leader innovates. 2. The manager is a copy; the leader is an original. 3. The manager maintains; the leader develops. 4. The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people. 5. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. 6. The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
Bennis 7. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why. 8. The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon. 9. The manager imitates; the leader originates. 10. The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. 11. The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. 12. The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing
Think of your own organisation What do you think is the prevailing style of leadership/management in your organisation? What is your evidence? Does that style complement or conflict with your own?
Control the Controllables “You take control of that which you can control” – Stephen Covey