Presentation on theme: "Articles: a / an / the / – mgr Anna Waligórska – Kotfas PWSZ Konin."— Presentation transcript:
Articles: a / an / the / – mgr Anna Waligórska – Kotfas PWSZ Konin
Indefinite Article: a / an used before singular countable nouns that are unspecified: a pencil, an orange an: used before singular countable nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound: an apple, an elephant, an issue, but: a university a: used before singular countable nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u): a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book
Definite Article: the can be used before singular and plural, countable and uncountable nouns can be used before singular and plural, countable and uncountable nouns used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context: Please close the door. I like the clothes you gave me.
No Article we use zero article (–) when we are talking about people or things in general: Books are expensive. Life is complicated. I love cheese.
a / an vs. the Compare: She took a glass of water and started to drink. (one of many glasses of water) She took the glass of water nearest to her. (It is clear which glass we are referring to.) She took the glass of water and started to drink. (There is only one glass of water.)
a / an vs. the Compare: I need to see a doctor. (not any specific doctor) I have to see the doctor tomorrow. (It's clear I am talking about my usual doctor.) How many people have walked on the moon? (There is only one moon.) The best film I've ever seen is Top Gun. (There can only be one best film.)
the vs. – Compare: Carrots are good for you. (carrots in general) The carrots in my garden are almost ready to eat.(specific carrots) English people drink a lot of tea. (English people in general) The English people in this hotel are very nice. (specific English people)
the vs. – with school, university, prison, hospital, church, bed, work and home we use: the when we are talking about a particular one zero article when we are talking about the idea of school, university... The church on our street was built in the 17th Century. (a particular church) I go to church every Sunday. (the idea of church, not a particular building)
the vs. – My friend works at the prison outside the city centre. My husband is in prison. The work isn't finished yet. I was feeling sick yesterday so I didn't go to work. The new bed is bigger than the old one. I put my children to bed a 8pm.
a / an: special uses We use a / an: to say what kind of person or thing someone or something is (often with an adjective, or to say it belongs to a particular group): You have a nice house. That's a very expensive car! A cat is an animal and a bus is a vehicle. talk about someone's job: My wife is an optician. She works as a mechanic.
a / an: special uses We use a / an: in expressions of price, speed, ratio (a / an = per): 5p a kilo four times a day six kilometers an hour
the: specific use We use the: to refer to a time period: I was very naïve in the past. This song was very popular in the 1980s. to indicate all the members of a family: I invited the Bakers for dinner. This medicine was invented by the Smiths.
the: specific use We use the: to talk about a type of thing: The computer was invented in the 20th Century. (not a particular computer) The crocodile is very dangerous. (this type of animal) She plays the piano. (not a particular piano but this type of instrument)
the: specific use We use the: + adjective to talk about a group of people (including nationalities). I always give money to the homeless. The unemployed receive money from the government. The French produce good wine.
the: specific use We use the: if the country contains Kingdom, Republic, State, Union: The United Kingdom with plural names of people and places: the Smiths, the Netherlands, the Smiths, the Netherlands, the Bahamas, the Alps (also the Caribbean) with oceans, seas, rivers and canals: the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, the Nile, the Panama Canal
– : specific use We use – : with continents, countries, regions, cities, streets, mountains, lakes and parks. Asia Main St Italy Mount Everest California Lake Superior BristolCentral Park
Bibliography 1. Bourke K.: Verbs and Tenses: Intermediate. Test it, Fix it. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 2. Leech G., Cruickshank B., Ivanic R.: An A-Z of English Grammar & Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2004. 3. Murphy R.: English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 4. Swan M.: Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 5. Thomas A. J., Martinet A. V.: A practical English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. 6. Vince M.: Intermediate Language Practice (New Edition). Oxford: Macmillan Education 2010. ESLBase: Teach English, http://www.eslbase.com/grammar/articles. [19.11.2013]. http://www.eslbase.com/grammar/articles