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Electron Configuration

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The way electrons are arranged around the nucleus.

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Quantum Mechanical Model 1920’s Werner Heisenberg (Uncertainty Principle) Louis de Broglie (electron has wave properties) Erwin Schrodinger (mathematical equations using probability, quantum numbers)

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Principal Quantum Number, n Indicates main energy levels n = 1, 2, 3, 4… Each main energy level has sub-levels

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Energy Sublevels s p d fg

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The principle quantum number, n, determines the number of sublevels within the principle energy level.

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Orbital Quantum Number, ℓ (Angular Momentum Quantum Number) Indicates shape of orbital sublevels ℓ = n-1 ℓsublevel 0 s 1 p 2 d 3 f 4 g

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Orbital The space where there is a high probability that it is occupied by a pair of electrons. Orbitals are solutions of Schrodinger’s equations.

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Orbitals in Sublevels Sublevel # Orbitals # electrons s12 p36 d510 f714 g918

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Three rules are used to build the electron configuration: Aufbau principle Pauli Exclusion Principle Hund’s Rule

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Aufbau Principle Electrons occupy orbitals of lower energy first.

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Aufbau Diagram

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-Pauli Exclusion Principle (Wolfgang Pauli, Austria, 1900-1958) -Electron Spin Quantum Number An orbital can hold only two electrons and they must have opposite spin. Electron Spin Quantum Number (m s ): +1/2, -1/2

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Hund’s Rule In a set of orbitals, the electrons will fill the orbitals in a way that would give the maximum number of parallel spins (maximum number of unpaired electrons). Analogy: Students could fill each seat of a school bus, one person at a time, before doubling up.

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Electron Configurations Electrons fill the lowest energy levels first (calcium shown) 5s 4s 3s 2s 1s 2p 3p 4p 3d 4d ENERGYENERGYENERGYENERGY

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Aufbau Diagram for Hydrogen

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Aufbau Diagram for Helium

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Aufbau Diagram for Lithium

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Aufbau Diagram for Beryllium

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Aufbau Diagram for Boron

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Aufbau Diagram for Carbon

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Aufbau Diagram for Nitrogen

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Aufbau Diagram

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Notations of Electron Configurations Standard Shorthand

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Aufbau Diagram for Fluorine

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Standard Notation of Fluorine Main Energy Level Numbers 1, 2, 2 Sublevels Number of electrons in the sub level 2,2,5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5

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Shorthand Notation Use the last noble gas that is located in the periodic table right before the element. Write the symbol of the noble gas in brackets. Write the remaining configuration after the brackets. Ex: Fluorine: [He] 2s 2 2p 5

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Blocks in the Periodic Table

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