Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chemistry. Matter All living things are made of matter Cannot be created or destroyed.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chemistry. Matter All living things are made of matter Cannot be created or destroyed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry

2 Matter All living things are made of matter Cannot be created or destroyed

3 Atoms Smallest unit of an element that still has the same chemical properties Three subatomic particles – Protons + (inside nucleus) – Neutrons 0 (inside nucleus) – Electrons – (outside nucleus)

4 Periodic Table Letter is the atomic symbol Atomic number is how many protons the atom has Atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons In a neutral atom protons And electrons will be the same

5 Element substances that can’t be broken down chemically into simpler substances Examples- – Hydrogen – Oxygen

6 Molecule 2 or more atoms come together to make a molecule Examples – H 2 – H 2 O – C 4

7 Compound 2 or more elements together in a fixed ratio. Examples: – H 2 O, NH 3, NaCO 3 – For every 1 oxygen, there are 2 hydrogens – All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds

8 Electron shells Areas of electrons around the nucleus Atoms have 2 electrons in the first shell 8 in the following shell Sulfur can bond with 2 other molecules

9 Valence Electrons The amount of electrons in the outer shell Determine chemical properties Determine how many bonds they can make

10 Valence Electrons When outer most energy shell is not full, atoms find ways to fill energy shells by taking, giving away or sharing electrons

11 Lewis Dot Diagrams An easy method to show outer energy shell and predict how the elements will bond together. Shows valence electrons only

12 Types of bonds Ionic Bonds- One or more electrons get passed to another element Very weak bond Na will pass one e- Chlorine will accept one e-

13 Types of bonds Covalent bonds- Share electrons between two elements Very strong bond – Polar covalent- shares electrons unequally (will be a charge) – Non-polar covalent- shares electrons equally

14 Types of bonds Hydrogen bonds- attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom hydrogenelectronegative Weak by itself Strong when there are many Water depends on H-bonds

15 Chemical reactions (rxn) Making or breaking of chemical bonds Reactants- left side of the equation, what goes into reaction Products- right side of the equation, what comes out of the reaction Comment: All atoms in the reactants must be accounted for in the products

16 Chemical rxn examples 2H 2 O  2H 2 + O 2 H + Cl  HCl Number at front means 2 water molecules Subscript numbers represent the amount of H in the molecule

17 Biochemistry Study of compounds found in living things Organic compounds- always contain Carbon Important Elements in Biology: HONC P S HONC for Biology!!

18 Metabolism All chemical activities and changes that happen in a cell or organism – synthesis: building up – decomposition: breaking down

19 Types of reactions Synthesis rxn- Simple molecule + simple molecule  Complex molecule Decomposition rxn- Complex molecule  simple molecule + simple molecule

20 Bonds Making complex molecules takes energy! Breaking down a complex molecule releases energy!

21 Homework/Classwork Draw one square from the periodic table on a half sheet of computer paper. Include: – Atomic number – Atomic mass – Name of element – Lewis Dot diagram – 5 pictures of molecules that include your element – 3 reasons why your element is important in Biology (being part of living things is not enough)

Download ppt "Chemistry. Matter All living things are made of matter Cannot be created or destroyed."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google