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CHEMISTRY. YOU MUST KNOW… THE 3 SUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE THE TYPES OF BONDS, HOW THEY FORM, AND THEIR RELATIVE STRENGTHS.

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMISTRY. YOU MUST KNOW… THE 3 SUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE THE TYPES OF BONDS, HOW THEY FORM, AND THEIR RELATIVE STRENGTHS."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMISTRY

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE 3 SUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE THE TYPES OF BONDS, HOW THEY FORM, AND THEIR RELATIVE STRENGTHS

3 CONCEPT 2.1 MATTER CONSISTS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN PURE FORM AND IN COMBINATIONS CALLED COMPOUNDS

4 MATTER TAKES UP SPACE AND HAS MASS ELEMENT – CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO OTHER SUBSTANCE BY A CHEMICAL REACTION COMPOUND – MADE OF 2 OR MORE ELEMENTS COMBINED IN A FIXED RATIO

5 ELEMENTS C, H, O, N MAKE UP 96% OF LIVING MATTER ABOUT 25 OF THE 92 NATURAL ELEMENTS ARE KNOWN TO BE ESSENTIAL TO LIFE TRACE ELEMENTS ARE REQUIRED IN ONLY MINUTE QUANTITIES

6 CONCEPT 2.2 AN ELEMENT’S PROPERTIES DEPEND ON THE STRUCTURE OF ITS ATOMS

7 ATOM ATOMS ARE THE SMALLEST UNIT OF AN ELEMENTS THAT STILL RETAINS THE PROPERTY OF THE ELEMENT

8 PROTONS PROTONS – POSITIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS AND DETERMINE THE ELEMENT

9 ELECTRONS ELECTRONS – NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES FOUND IN ELECTRON SHELLS DETERMINE THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY OF THE ELEMENT

10 NEUTRONS PARTICLES WITH NO CHARGE FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS THEIR NUMBER CAN VARY IN THE SAME ELEMENT CREATING ISOTOPES

11 ATOMIC NUMBER/MASS ATOMIC NUMBER IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS AN ELEMENT POSSESSES UNIQUE TO EVERY ELEMENT MASS NUMBER OF AN ELEMENT IS THE SUM OF ITS PROTONS AND NEUTRONS

12

13 CONCEPT 2.3 THE FORMATION AND FUNCTION OF MOLECULES DEPEND ON CHEMICAL BONDING BETWEEN ATOMS

14 CHEMICAL BONDS DEFINED AS INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE VALENCE ELECTRONS OF DIFFERENT ATOMS ATOMS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY CHEMICAL BONDS TO FORM MOLECULES

15 COVALENT BOND OCCURS WHEN VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE SHARED BY 2 ATOMS

16 NONPOLAR COVALENT BONDS OCCUR WHEN THE ELECTRONS BEING SHARED ARE SHARED EQUALLY BETWEEN THE TWO ATOMS EX. O = O, H – H ATOMS VARY IN THEIR ELECTRONEGATIVITY (THE TENDENCY TO ATTRACT ELECTRONS OF A COVALENT BOND)

17 POLAR COVALENT BONDS ONE ATOM HAS GREATER ELECTRONEGATIVITY THAN THE OTHER, RESULTING IN AN UNEQUAL SHARING OF THE ELECTRONS EX. WATER

18 IONIC BOND TWO ATOMS ATTRACT VALENCE ELECTRONS SO UNEQUALLY THAT THE MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOMS STEALS THE ELECTRON AWAY FROM THE LESS ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM

19 HYDROGEN BOND RELATIVELY WEAK BONDS THAT FORM BETWEEN THE POSITIVELY CHARGED HYDROGEN ATOM OF ONE MOLECULE AND THE STRONGLY ELECTRONEGATIVE OXYGEN OR NITROGEN OF ANOTHER MOLECULE

20 VAN DER WAALS INTERACTIONS VERY WEAK, TRANSIENT CONNECTIONS THAT ARE THE RESULT OF ASYMMETRICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS WITHIN A MOLECULE CONTRIBUTES TO THE 3-D SHAPE OF LARGE MOLECULES


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