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Year 8 Algebra Recap Dr J Frost (jfrost@tiffin.kingston.sch.uk) Last modified: 28 th August 2015 Objectives: (a) Recap simplifying expressions (b) Recap solving equations, including brackets and the variable appearing on both sides. (b) Form equations from context (with emphasis on quality of written communication, e.g. "Let x be...").

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KEY TERMS This is an example of a: Term A term is a product of numbers and variables (no additions/subtractions) Expression An expression is composed of one or more terms, whether added or otherwise. Equation An equation says that the expressions on the left and right hand side of the = have the same value. ? ? ?

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Quickfire Examples – Collecting ‘Like Terms’ ? ? ? ? ? Bro Recap: Terms are ‘like’ if they have the same variables and the same powers.

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Multiplying ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Division ? Fractions are ultimately just divisions. How did we simplify this fraction? Can we apply the same principle to algebraic division? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Test Your Understanding ? ? ? ?

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-20 44 44 ? ? ?? ? ? Strategy: Do the opposite operation to ‘get rid of’ items surrounding our variable. -4 33 ×6×6 ? ? ? Solving Bro Tip: Many students find writing these operations between each equation helpful to remind them what they’re doing to each side, but you’ll eventually want to wean yourself off these. Bro Note: You can probably see the answer to this in your head because the equation is relatively simple, but this full method is crucial when things become more complicated

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Test Your Understanding Solve the following. ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4

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What might our strategy be? Collect the variable terms (i.e. The terms involving a) on one side of the equation, and the ‘constants’ (i.e. The individual numbers) on the other side. ? What happens if variable appears on both sides?

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-3 -2a ?? ? ? 33 33 ? ? ? This is to get rid of the constant term on the left. We could have done these two steps in either order. What happens if variable appears on both sides? Strategy? Collect the variable terms on the side of the equation where there’s more of them (and move constant terms to other side). ?

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? More Examples ? Both methods are valid, but I prefer the second – it’s best to avoid dividing by negative numbers, and is less likely to lead to error. Way we’d have previously done it… ? ?

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Test Your Understanding ? ?

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Dealing with Brackets If there’s any brackets, simply expand them first! ??

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Test Your Understanding ? ?

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Exercise 1 Solve the following. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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RECAP :: Forming/Solving Process [JMC 2008 Q18] Granny swears that she is getting younger. She has calculated that she is four times as old as I am now, but remember that 5 years ago she was five times as old as I was at that time. What is the sum of our ages now? Worded problem Stage 1: Represent problem algebraically Stage 2: ‘Solve’ equation(s) to find value of variables.

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Example Step 1: Find two different expressions for the thing of interest (one of them often a provided number) Step 2: Set them equal to each other. Step 3: Solve! Expr 1?Expr 2? Solve!

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Another Example Step 1: Find two different expressions for the thing of interest (one of them often a provided number) The rectangle and triangle have the same area. Determine the width of the rectangle. Step 2: Set them equal to each other. Step 3: Solve! Expr 1? Expr 2? Solve!

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Check Your Understanding Expr 1? Expr 2? Solve! Expr 1?Expr 2? Solve! ? 1 2

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Forming the expressions yourself Thomas is 5m shorter than Sebastian. Raul is double the height of Sebastian. Their combined height is 35m. Find Sebastian’s height. Use the word “Let …” to define your variable(s)! You want a clear narrative while been as concise as possible. ? ? ?

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[JMC 2013 Q7] After tennis training, Andy collects twice as many balls as Roger and five more than Maria. They collect 35 balls in total. How many balls does Andy collect? More Examples [TMC Regional 2014 Q9] In a list of seven consecutive numbers a quarter of the smallest number is five less than a third of the largest number. What is the value of the smallest number in the list? ? ?

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Test Your Understanding The width of the rectangle is three times the height. The total perimeter is 56m. Determine its height. Bro Reminder: You should usually start with “Let …” In 4 years time I will be 3 times as old as I was 10 years ago. How old am I? ? ? 1 2

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Exercise 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (Teacher Note: For printout see “Year 7 – Equations Ex3” - http://www.drfrostmaths.com/resource.php?id=11640 ) http://www.drfrostmaths.com/resource.php?id=11640

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Exercise 2 9 10 11 12 13 ? ? ? ? ?

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Exercise 2 (Note: this is not intended to be a full proof!) 14 15 16 17 ? ? ? ?

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Exercise 2 18 19 ? ?

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Exercise 2 20 ?

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