Presentation on theme: "Organizational Culture, Socialization, & Mentoring"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organizational Culture, Socialization, & Mentoring Organizational Culture: Definition and ContextDynamics of Organizational CultureDeveloping High-Performance CulturesThe Organizational Socialization ProcessEmbedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring
2 Organizational Culture Shared values and beliefs that underlie a company’s identityWhat types of organizational culture’s have you worked in?How does the organization’s culture manifest itself?Organizational Culture – Shared values and beliefs that underlie a company’s identityWhat types of organizational cultures have you worked in?Students may respond with competitive, laid back, stressful, bureacratic, etc.Follow up question – How do you know? What were the indicators of the organization’s culture. Probe for manifestations of organizational culture (e.g., shared things (objects) sayings, behavior, feelings.
3 Understanding Organizational Culture Figure 3-1Understanding Organizational CultureOrganizational CultureObservable artifactsEspoused valuesBasic assumptionsGroup & Social ProcessesSocializationMentoringDecisionmakingGroupdynamicsCommunicationInfluence &empowermentLeadershipAntecedentsFounder’s valuesIndustry & businessenvironmentNational cultureSenior leaders’vision and behaviorOrganizational Structure & PracticesReward systemsOrganizationaldesignCollective Attitudes & BehaviorWork attitudesJob satisfactionMotivationThis figure shows the importance of organizational culture on individual, group and organizational behavior. The roots of an organization’s culture are driven by the values of the founders and senior leaders, the culture of the nation, and the particular industry and business environment.Now, let’s look at the organizational culture box specifically to understand what it is comprised of.Organizational OutcomesEffectivenessInnovation &stress
4 Layers of Organizational Culture Observable artifactsExamples?Values – enduring belief in a mode or conduct or end-stateDifference between espoused and enacted?Basic AssumptionsLayers of Organizational CultureObservable artifactsExamples include dress, awards, myths and stories, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, visible behavior exhibited by people and groups.Values – enduring belief in a mode or conduct or end-stateAn important part of an org’s culture is the stated values to which they ascribe and expect of all employees. These are called espoused values. In theory the espoused values and enacted values (values and norms exhibited by employees) are the same. Organizational cynicism and low morale may occur when an organization acts counter to it’s espoused values. For example, a company who states that they value work/family balance and then calls a meeting on the weekend for a task force to discuss it.Basic assumptionsRepresent the core of the organizational culture and are so ingrained and understood by everyone that to act counter to them would be inconceivable. For example, Southwest Airlines who’s assumptions are that employees’ welfare and providing high quality service is paramount to what they are all about.
5 Four Functions of Organizational Culture Give members an organizational identity. Culture helps to establish who the company is and what is stands for. Ideally, employees should be proud to belong to a company who shares their values.Facilitate collective commitment – drive energy around what is really important. At Southwest, employees know they’ll be taken care of if they take care of their customers.Promote social system stability – a positive culture is more likely to be able to resolve conflict using a problem-focused approach rather than person-focused or blaming mentality.Shape behavior by helping members make sense of their surroundings. Decisions made by the company that are consistent with the culture are easy for employees to understand. Performance is rewarded that is aligned with that corporate strategy and values.
6 Three Types of Cultures ConstructivePassive-defensiveAggressive-defensiveConstructive – employees are encouraged to interact with others and work on tasks and projects in ways that will assist them in satisfying their needs to grow an developPassive-defensive – overriding belief that employees must interact with others in ways that do not threaten their own job securityNormative beliefs include – approval, conventional, dependent, avoidanceAggressive – defensive – encourages employees to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and job securityNormative beliefs – oppositional power, competitive, perfectionistFor example, Enron had an aggressive-defensive culture. Employees are quoted as saying that when they go to discuss their raise and bonus with their boss that they know if they step on someone else on the way to the office they will be more likely to get more money and bonus. The highly competitive environment contributed to the poor, opportunistic decisions made by upper management ultimately causing the demise of the company.
7 Constructive CultureTable 3-1Constructive Culture employees are encouraged to interact with others and to work on tasks and projects that will assist in satisfying their needs to grow and developHigh priority on constructive interpersonal relationships, and focus on work group satisfactionAffiliativeParticipative, employee centered, and supportiveHumanistic-encouragingValue self-development and creativitySelf-actualizingGoal and achievement orientedAchievementOrganizational CharacteristicsNormative Beliefs
8 Passive-Defensive Culture Table 3-1Passive- Defensive Culture overriding belief that employees must interact with others in ways that do not threaten their job securityNegative reward system and Defensive avoid accountabilityAvoidanceNonparticipative, centralized decision making, and employees do what they are toldDependentConservative, bureaucratic, and people follow the rulesConventionalAvoid conflict, strive to be liked by others, and approval orientedApprovalOrganizational CharacteristicsNormative Beliefs
9 Aggressive-Defensive Culture Table 3-1Aggressive-Defensive Culture encourage employees to approach tasks in forceful ways in order to protect their status and job securityPerfectionistic, persistent, and hard workingPerfectionisticWinning is value and a win-lose approach is usedCompetitiveNonparticipative, take charge of Defensive subordinates, and responsive to superiorsPowerConfrontation and negativism rewardedOppositionalOrganizational CharacteristicsNormative Beliefs
10 Developing and Preserving an Adaptive Culture An adaptive culture is one that changes in response to business and environmental demands. It begins with having a clear vision and mission. When the strategy is successful, employee become proud and want to work to push the company even further.
11 Embedding Culture in Organizations Formal statements or organizational philosophyDesign of physical spaceSlogans, language, acronyms, sayingsDeliberate role modeling, trainingExplicit rewards, status symbolsStories, legends, mythsFormal statements or organizational philosophyDesign of physical spaceSlogans, language, acronyms, sayingsDeliberate role modeling, trainingExplicit rewards, status symbolsStories, legends, myths
12 Embedding Culture in Organizations Leader reactions to critical incidentsWorkflow and organizational structureOrganizational activities, processes, or outcomes leaders attend toOrganizational systems and proceduresOrganizational goals and criteria for managing human resourcesLeader reactions to critical incidentsWorkflow and organizational structureOrganizational activities, processes, or outcomes leaders attend toOrganizational systems and proceduresOrganizational goals and criteria for managing human resources
13 Organizational Socialization Figure 3-4Organizational SocializationPhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesAnticipatory socialization learning that occurs prior to joining the organizationAnticipating realities about the organization and the new jobAnticipating organization’s needs for one’s skills and abilitiesAnticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and valuesPhase 1 – this occurs largely before the person enters the organization and information from current employees or members of the community is gathered to form the impression of the company. A realistic job preview is useful tool to let people understand the nature of the organization, it’s culture, and what the job entails.
14 Organizational Socialization Figure 3-4Organizational SocializationPhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesEncounter values, skills, and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what the organization is truly likeManaging lifestyle-versus-work conflictsManaging intergroup role conflictsSeeking role definition and clarityBecoming familiar with task and group dynamicsPhase 2 – Encounter – employee begins to understand who plays what role in the work group and company and starts to learn the norms and beliefs of employees and managers
15 Organizational Socialization Figure 3-4Organizational SocializationPhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesChange and acquisition recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to work group’s values and normsCompeting role demands are resolvedCritical tasks are masteredGroup norms and values are internalizedPhase 3 – employee learns to embrace the culture in order to maximize his/her effectiveness in working towards his/her goals.
16 Organizational Socialization Figure 3-4Organizational SocializationOutsiderPhasesAnticipatory socializationEncounterChange and acquisitionSocialized InsiderBehavioral OutcomesPerforms role assignmentsRemains with organizationSpontaneously innovates andcooperatesAffective OutcomesGenerally satisfiedInternally motivated to workHigh job involvement
18 MentoringMentoring is the process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior personDeveloping and instituting a mentoring relationship can contribute to future career success of a new employee or person transitioning to a new role within the organization.Mentored employees have been shown to have higher compensation and more promotions than nonmentored employees and report higher job and career satisfaction.
19 Functions of Mentoring CareerFunctionsSponsorshipExposure and ViabilityTopic Covered: MentoringKathy Kram, a Boston University researcher, identified two general functions of the mentoring process: career and psychologicalFive career functions that enhanced career development were:SponsorshipActively nominating a junior manager for promotions and desirable positionsExposure-and-visibilityPairing a junior manager with key executives who can provide opportunitiesCoachingProviding practical tips on how to accomplish harmful situations or senior managersProtectionShielding a junior from potentially harmful situations or senior managersChallenging assignmentsHelping a junior manager develop necessary competencies through favorable job assignments and feedbackFour psychological functions were:Role modelingGiving a junior manager a pattern of values and behavior to emulate (this is the most frequently observed psychological function)Acceptance-and-confirmationProviding mutual support and encouragementCounselingHelping a junior manger work our personal problems, thus enhancing his or her self imageFriendshipEngaging in mutually satisfying social interactionThe psychological functions clarified the participants’ identities and enhanced their feelings of competenceSource: R Kreitner and A Kinicki, Organizational Behavior 5th ed. p. 88 Irwin/McGraw-Hill: Burr Ridge, IL 2001CoachingProtectionChallenging AssignmentsPsychologicalFunctionsRole ModelingAcceptance and ConfirmationCounselingFriendship
20 Functions of Mentoring Career FunctionsIn what ways can mentoring assist in one’s career progression?Psychological FunctionsHow can mentoring serve a psychological function?Career FunctionsIn what ways can mentoring assist in one’s career progression?SponsorshipExposure-and-VisibilityCoachingProtectionChallenging AssignmentsPsychological FunctionsHow can mentoring serve a psychological function?Role ModelingAcceptance-and-ConfirmationCounselingFriendship
21 Developmental Networks Associated with Mentoring Figure 3-5Developmental Networks Associated with MentoringDevelopmental Relationship StrengthWeak TiesStrong TiesLow Range• D2• D2Key:D = developerP = protegeD1 •D1 •• P• PDevelopmental Relationship DiversityReceptiveTraditionalD1 •• D2D1 •• D2Mentoring is no longer thought to be performed by only one person.Developmental NetworksReceptive – composed of a few weak ties from one social system such as an employer or professional association.Traditional – few strong ties between an employee and developer that all come from one social systemOpportunistic – characterized by weak ties with a diverse set of developersEntrepreneurial – characterized by strong ties with a diverse set of developers.People who have strong ties with a diverse set of people tend to change their careers and benefit from personal learning more than people with receptive, traditional, and opportunistic networks.High Range•P•PD3 •• D4D3 •• D4OpportunisticEntrepreneurial