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Organizational socialization

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational socialization"— Presentation transcript:


2 Organizational socialization
‘the process by which a person learns the values, norms and required behaviours which permit him to participate as a member of the organization’ (Van Maanen, 1976, p. 67)

3 Organizational Socialization
process by which a person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a member of the organization 12-3 3

4 Keeping Culture Alive Selection Top Management Socialization
Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization. Provides information to candidates about the organization. Top Management Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization. Socialization The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.

5 Stages in the Socialization Process
Prearrival Stage The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. Encounter Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge. Metamorphosis Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization.

6 Stages of Socialization

7 Organizational Socialization
Phase 1: Anticipatory Phase 2: Encounter Phase 3: Change and acquisition

8 Phase 1: Anticipatory Socialization
Occurs before an individual joins an organization Involves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations 12-8 8

9 Phase 2: Encounter Employees learn what the organization is really like and reconcile unmet expectations Onboarding programs aimed at helping employees integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs 12-9 9

10 Phase 3: Change and Acquisition
Requires employees to master important tasks and roles and to adjust to their work group’s values and norms 12-10 10

11 Organizational Socialization Process

12 A Model of Organizational Socialization

13 Organizational Socialization
Phases Perceptual and Social Processes Anticipatory socialization learning that occurs prior to joining the organization Anticipating realities about the organization and the new job Anticipating organization’s needs for one’s skills and abilities Anticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and values

14 Organizational Socialization
Phases Perceptual and Social Processes Encounter values, skills, and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what the organization is truly like Managing lifestyle-versus-work conflicts Managing intergroup role conflicts Seeking role definition and clarity Becoming familiar with task and group dynamics

15 Organizational Socialization
Phases Perceptual and Social Processes Change and acquisition recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to work group’s values and norms Competing role demands are resolved Critical tasks are mastered Group norms and values are internalized

16 A Socialization Model

17 Outcomes of Socialization
Newcomers who are successfully socialized should exhibit: Good performance High job satisfaction Intention to stay with organization Low levels of distress symptoms High level of organizational commitment

18 Embedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring
the process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person

19 Mentoring Developmental relationship strength reflects the quality of relationships among the individual and those involved in his developmental network

20 Mentoring The process by which a more experienced employee advises, counsels, and otherwise enhances the professional development of a new employee. Mentor: A more experienced employee who guides a newer employee in learning about the job and organization. Protégé: An inexperienced employee who receives assistance from a more experienced employee in learning about a new job and/or organization.

21 Functions of Mentoring
Career Functions In what ways can mentoring assist in one’s career progression? Psychological Functions How can mentoring serve a psychological function? The two general functions of mentoring are career and psychological. Mentors can assist in an employee’s career progression by providing sponsorship, coaching, protection, and exposure-and-visibility, and guiding the employee in acquiring challenging assignments. Likewise, mentors can serve a psychological function through role modeling, providing acceptance-and-confirmation and counseling, and offering friendship. 21

22 Functions of Mentoring
Career Functions Sponsorship Exposure and visibility Coaching Protection Challenging assignments Psychosocial functions Role modeling Acceptance and confirmation Counseling friendship Topic Covered: Mentoring Kathy Kram, a Boston University researcher, identified two general functions of the mentoring process: career and psychological Five career functions that enhanced career development were: Sponsorship Actively nominating a junior manager for promotions and desirable positions Exposure-and-visibility Pairing a junior manager with key executives who can provide opportunities Coaching Providing practical tips on how to accomplish harmful situations or senior managers Protection Shielding a junior from potentially harmful situations or senior managers Challenging assignments Helping a junior manager develop necessary competencies through favorable job assignments and feedback Four psychological functions were: Role modeling Giving a junior manager a pattern of values and behavior to emulate (this is the most frequently observed psychological function) Acceptance-and-confirmation Providing mutual support and encouragement Counseling Helping a junior manger work our personal problems, thus enhancing his or her self image Friendship Engaging in mutually satisfying social interaction The psychological functions clarified the participants’ identities and enhanced their feelings of competence 22

23 Mentoring Stages

24 Benefits of Mentoring For the protégé: Mentors
Provide much needed emotional support and confidence Help pave the way for job success Suggest useful strategies for achieving work objectives Help bring the protégé to the attention of top management Protect protégés from making errors and help them avoid risky situations

25 Benefits of Mentoring For the mentor:
May reap psychological benefits from feeling needed and a sense of accomplishment in helping the younger generation Can expect protégés to work hard at assigned tasks Can expect protégés to be loyal supporters May gain recognition from others for their work in helping nurture young talent Can feel proud of their protégés’ successes

26 Risks of Mentoring Protégés may find that their own success hinges on the success of their mentor. Any failures on the part of the protégé may harm the mentor’s reputation. The mentor’s advice may not be as good as it should be. Protégés may become so highly dependent on their mentors that they will be slow to develop as self-reliant individuals. Mentors may grow overly reliant on their protégés, delegating too many responsibilities that they should be discharging themselves.

27 Successful Mentoring

28 NORMS Defined -- Agreed upon and often informal rules that guide group members behavior Formal norms --More important to continuity of the organization, written codes of conduct Informal -- Implicit but unwritten Agreed upon -- Continuing consensus among group members

29 DIMENSIONS OF NORMS Behavioral -- Specifies what to do, when to do it and how much is appropriate Evaluative -- Specifies approval or disapproval by the group. The group sanctions (positive and negative) can be explicit or implicit

Range of tolerated behaviors -- approved behavior is actually over a range that deviates from the prototype of the norm Intensity -- Strength of approval -- disapproval. Some norms have sharp approval and disapproval, others are mild. Crystallization -- Group consensus

Performance norms Dress norms Reward allocation norms Commitment norms

32 NORM DEVELOPMENT Precedents over time Transfers from other situations
Critical events Explicit rules

33 ROLES Defined -- Group position that has a set of expected behaviors
Formal role -- job description Informal role -- what your work group expects of you beyond job description, what you add on your own Role taking makes organizational life orderly and predictable

34 ROLE CHARACTERISTICS Role expectations -- behavior expected of someone in a particular position Role incumbent -- the person currently filling the position. Incumbent can shrink or expand role to a certain point. Role ambiguity -- unclear expectations about role behavior. Creates confusion for the incumbent

Role conflict -- conflicting role demands Sender conflict Inter-role conflict Person-role conflict

Task specialist -- Person who because of experience, skill, or knowledge has edge in task competency Maintenance specialist -- human relations guru

Summing up — Examined the function of norms in groups, the behavioral and evaluative components as well as the fact that norms cover a range of behaviors. Also looked at role ambiguity, role conflict, and task and maintenance roles Looking ahead: Next time we consider group influence and team work.

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