2 Organizational socialization ‘the process by which a person learns the values, norms and required behaviours which permit him to participate as a member of the organization’ (Van Maanen, 1976, p. 67)
3 Organizational Socialization process by which a person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a member of the organization12-33
4 Keeping Culture Alive Selection Top Management Socialization Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization.Provides information to candidates about the organization.Top ManagementSenior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization.SocializationThe process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.
5 Stages in the Socialization Process Prearrival StageThe period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization.Encounter StageThe stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.Metamorphosis StageThe stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization.
8 Phase 1: Anticipatory Socialization Occurs before an individual joins an organizationInvolves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations12-88
9 Phase 2: EncounterEmployees learn what the organization is really like and reconcile unmet expectationsOnboardingprograms aimed at helping employees integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs12-99
10 Phase 3: Change and Acquisition Requires employees to master important tasks and roles and to adjust to their work group’s values and norms12-1010
13 Organizational Socialization PhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesAnticipatory socialization learning that occurs prior to joining the organizationAnticipating realities about the organization and the new jobAnticipating organization’s needs for one’s skills and abilitiesAnticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and values
14 Organizational Socialization PhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesEncounter values, skills, and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what the organization is truly likeManaging lifestyle-versus-work conflictsManaging intergroup role conflictsSeeking role definition and clarityBecoming familiar with task and group dynamics
15 Organizational Socialization PhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesChange and acquisition recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to work group’s values and normsCompeting role demands are resolvedCritical tasks are masteredGroup norms and values are internalized
17 Outcomes of Socialization Newcomers who are successfully socialized should exhibit:Good performanceHigh job satisfactionIntention to stay with organizationLow levels of distress symptomsHigh level of organizational commitment
18 Embedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring the process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person
19 MentoringDevelopmental relationship strength reflects the quality of relationships among the individual and those involved in his developmental network
20 MentoringThe process by which a more experienced employee advises, counsels, and otherwise enhances the professional development of a new employee.Mentor: A more experienced employee who guides a newer employee in learning about the job and organization.Protégé: An inexperienced employee who receives assistance from a more experienced employee in learning about a new job and/or organization.
21 Functions of Mentoring Career FunctionsIn what ways can mentoring assist in one’s career progression?Psychological FunctionsHow can mentoring serve a psychological function?The two general functions of mentoring are career and psychological.Mentors can assist in an employee’s career progression by providing sponsorship, coaching, protection, and exposure-and-visibility, and guiding the employee in acquiring challenging assignments.Likewise, mentors can serve a psychological function through role modeling, providing acceptance-and-confirmation and counseling, and offering friendship.21
22 Functions of Mentoring Career FunctionsSponsorshipExposure and visibilityCoachingProtectionChallenging assignmentsPsychosocial functionsRole modelingAcceptance and confirmationCounselingfriendshipTopic Covered: MentoringKathy Kram, a Boston University researcher, identified two general functions of the mentoring process: career and psychologicalFive career functions that enhanced career development were:SponsorshipActively nominating a junior manager for promotions and desirable positionsExposure-and-visibilityPairing a junior manager with key executives who can provide opportunitiesCoachingProviding practical tips on how to accomplish harmful situations or senior managersProtectionShielding a junior from potentially harmful situations or senior managersChallenging assignmentsHelping a junior manager develop necessary competencies through favorable job assignments and feedbackFour psychological functions were:Role modelingGiving a junior manager a pattern of values and behavior to emulate (this is the most frequently observed psychological function)Acceptance-and-confirmationProviding mutual support and encouragementCounselingHelping a junior manger work our personal problems, thus enhancing his or her self imageFriendshipEngaging in mutually satisfying social interactionThe psychological functions clarified the participants’ identities and enhanced their feelings of competence22
24 Benefits of Mentoring For the protégé: Mentors Provide much needed emotional support and confidenceHelp pave the way for job successSuggest useful strategies for achieving work objectivesHelp bring the protégé to the attention of top managementProtect protégés from making errors and help them avoid risky situations
25 Benefits of Mentoring For the mentor: May reap psychological benefits from feeling needed and a sense of accomplishment in helping the younger generationCan expect protégés to work hard at assigned tasksCan expect protégés to be loyal supportersMay gain recognition from others for their work in helping nurture young talentCan feel proud of their protégés’ successes
26 Risks of MentoringProtégés may find that their own success hinges on the success of their mentor.Any failures on the part of the protégé may harm the mentor’s reputation.The mentor’s advice may not be as good as it should be.Protégés may become so highly dependent on their mentors that they will be slow to develop as self-reliant individuals.Mentors may grow overly reliant on their protégés, delegating too many responsibilities that they should be discharging themselves.
28 NORMSDefined -- Agreed upon and often informal rules that guide group members behaviorFormal norms --More important to continuity of the organization, written codes of conductInformal -- Implicit but unwrittenAgreed upon -- Continuing consensus among group members
29 DIMENSIONS OF NORMSBehavioral -- Specifies what to do, when to do it and how much is appropriateEvaluative -- Specifies approval or disapproval by the group. The group sanctions (positive and negative) can be explicit or implicit
30 CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMS Range of tolerated behaviors -- approved behavior is actually over a range that deviates from the prototype of the normIntensity -- Strength of approval -- disapproval. Some norms have sharp approval and disapproval, others are mild.Crystallization -- Group consensus
32 NORM DEVELOPMENT Precedents over time Transfers from other situations Critical eventsExplicit rules
33 ROLES Defined -- Group position that has a set of expected behaviors Formal role -- job descriptionInformal role -- what your work group expects of you beyond job description, what you add on your ownRole taking makes organizational life orderly and predictable
34 ROLE CHARACTERISTICSRole expectations -- behavior expected of someone in a particular positionRole incumbent -- the person currently filling the position. Incumbent can shrink or expand role to a certain point.Role ambiguity -- unclear expectations about role behavior. Creates confusion for the incumbent
35 ROLE CHARACTERISTICS, CONT. Role conflict -- conflicting role demandsSender conflictInter-role conflictPerson-role conflict
36 TYPICAL ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES Task specialist -- Person who because of experience, skill, or knowledge has edge in task competencyMaintenance specialist -- human relations guru
37 BACKWARDS AND FORWARDS Summing up — Examined the function of norms in groups, the behavioral and evaluative components as well as the fact that norms cover a range of behaviors. Also looked at role ambiguity, role conflict, and task and maintenance rolesLooking ahead: Next time we consider group influence and team work.