Presentation on theme: "Reading the Periodic Table. A way of organizing & classifying elements Arranged in rows and columns Based on their chemical properties Families given."— Presentation transcript:
A way of organizing & classifying elements Arranged in rows and columns Based on their chemical properties Families given specific name to differentiate from the other families in the periodic table Elements in each family react differently with other elements.
Columns The vertical (up and down) columns of the periodic table (there are 18) are called groups or families. Elements in the same group or family have similar characteristics or properties.
Rows The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods. Elements in a period are not alike in properties. The first element in a period is usually an active solid, and the last element in a period is always an inactive gas.
Rows Atomic size (number of protons) decreases from left to right across a period. Atomic mass (number of protons) increases from left to right across a period.
Rows Metals are on the left Non-metals are on the right
Let’s talk about the individual parts of the periodic table.
Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal 1 electron in the outer shell Very reactive – especially with water Do not occur freely in nature Conductors of heat and electricity. Softer than most other metals Group 1: ALKALI METALS
2 electrons in the outer shell Metals Not as reactive as group 1, but more reactive than other metals Not found free in nature Conduct electricity Group 2: ALKLINE EARTH METALS
Some of the earliest known metals Generally less reactive than most other metals Many found in foods you eat Combine metals to make alloys Bendable & conducts electricity and heat The transition metals are able to put up to 32 electrons in their second to last shell. Groups 3-12: TRANSITION METALS
Groups 13-16 OTHER METALS BCNO (Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen groups)
BORON FAMILY Group 13 3 electrons in the outer shell Most are metals Boron is a metalloid
CARBON FAMILY Group 14 4 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and a non-metal Carbon (C)
NITROGEN FAMILY Group 15 5 electrons in the outer shell Can share electrons to form compounds Contains metals, metalloids, and non- metals
OXYGEN FAMILY Group 16 6 electrons in the outer shell Contains metalloids, and non-metals Reactive
Group 17: HALOGENS “Halogen" means "salt" 7 electrons in the outer shell Very reactive are often bonded with elements from Group 1 Often used to kill harmful organisms (examples: chlorine in drinking water & pools, iodine in hospitals) All are non-metals except one metalloid
Group 18: NOBLE GASES Called noble (Think of royalty or nobleman-they don’t interact with the general public-almost NEVER react with other elements Gases Non-metals 8 electrons in the outer shell = Full Helium (He) has only 2 electrons in the outer shell = Full Not reactive with other elements