3 Why is it organized the way that it is? Individual atoms do not have physical and chemical properties that we could recognize in ways that we are familiar withElements however do, and when we talk about properties of the periodic table this is what we are talking aboutElements are arranged in the periodic table based on these properties (the way they act)
4 Periods (rows)When you look at a periodic table, each of the rows is considered to be a different periodIn the periodic table, elements have something in common if they are in the same row.All of the elements in a period have the same number of atomic orbitals. (number of electron shells)
6 Groups When a column goes from top to bottom, it's called a group. The elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbitalExample: Every element in the first column (group one) has one electron in its outer shell. Every element on the second column (group two) has two electrons in the outer shellThere are exceptions, but you don’t need to worry about that now
7 The white are transition metals, and they are not in a group
8 Group NamesThe groups (columns in the periodic table) are numbered 1-18.Some groups enjoy non-systematic names as well.Group 1 (alkali metals)Group 2 (alkaline earth metals)Group 17 (halogens)Group 18 (noble gases)
9 FamiliesThe families of elements are determined by their chemical propertiesEach family reacts a different way with the outside worldUsually, the columns of the periodic table are used to define families (but not always)
10 Families (con’t)The Periodic table can be divided into nine families of elements each having similar properties:Color the periodic table in your lab notebook and create a key using the following website:Alkali EarthAlkaline EarthTransition MetalsOther MetalsMetalloidsNon-MetalsHalogensNoble GasesRare Earth
11 Alkali Earth Metals Found in group 1 of the periodic table Highly reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature.Have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements.Malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricityThe alkali metals are softer than most other metals.
12 Alkaline Earth Metals Found in the second group of the periodic table All alkaline earth elements are very reactive (they will interact a lot with other elements)
13 Transition MetalsThe 38 elements in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called "transition metals."Both ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat
14 Rare EarthAll of the rare earth metals are found in group 3 of the periodic table, and the 6th and 7th periodsMany of these elements are synthetic, that is, human-made
15 Other MetalsThe "other metals" elements are located in groups 13, 14, and 15Ductile and malleableAll of these elements are solid, have a relatively high density, and are opaque
16 MetalloidsMetalloids are the elements found between the boundary that distinguishes metals from non-metalsMetalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals.Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors.
17 Non-MetalsNon-metals are the elements in groups of the periodic table.Non-metals are not able to conduct electricity or heat very well.Non-metallic elements are very brittle.The non-metals can be gases, such as oxygen and solids, such as carbon.The non-metals have no metallic luster, and do not reflect light.
18 HalogensThe halogens are five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic tableAll halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells
19 Noble GasesThe noble gases are found in group 18 of the periodic table.These elements have full valence shells and so are stable and not likely to react with other elements.